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Roles of diet, lifetime physical activity and oxidative DNA damage in the occurrence of prostate cancer among men in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

There is a paucity of information on risk factors of prostate cancer, especially those related to dietary and lifestyle among Asian populations.

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to determine the relationship between dietary intake (macronutrients, fruits, vegetables and lycopene), lifetime physical activity and oxidative DNA damage with prostate cancer.

DESIGN

A case control study was carried out among 105 subjects (case n=35, control n=70), matched for age and ethnicity. Data on sociodemographic, medical, dietary intake, consumption of lycopene rich food and lifetime physical activity were obtained through an interview based questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height and waist hip circumferences were also carried out on subjects. A total of 3 mL fasting venous blood was drawn to assess lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay.

RESULTS

Cases had a significantly higher intake of fat (27.7 ± 5.5%) as compared to controls (25.1 ± 5.9%) (p < 0.05). Mean intakes of fruits and vegetables (3.11 ± 1.01 servings/d)(p < 0.05), fruits (1.23 ± 0.59 servings/d) (p<0.05) and vegetables (1.97 ± 0.94 servings/d) were higher in controls than cases (2.53 ± 1.01, 0.91 ∓ 0.69, 1.62 ± 0.82 servings/d). A total of 71% of cases did not met the recommendation of a minimum of three servings of fruits and vegetables daily, as compared to 34% of controls (p < 0.05) (adjusted OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.3-17.8)) (p < 0.05). Estimated lycopene intake among cases (2,339 ∓ 1,312 mcg/d) were lower than controls (3881 ∓ 3120 mcg/d) (p< 0.01). Estimated lycopene intake of less than 2,498 mcg/day (50th percentile) increased risk of prostate cancer by double [Adjusted OR 2.5 (95%CI 0.99-6.31)]. Intake of tomatoes, watermelon, guava, pomelo, papaya, mango, oranges, dragon fruit, carrot, tomato sauce and barbeque sauce were higher in controls compared to cases. Intake of tomato sauce of more than 2.24 g/d (25th percentile), papaya more than 22.7 g/d (50th percentile) and oranges more than 19.1g/h (50th percentile) reduced prostate cancer risk by 7.4 (Adjusted OR 7.4 (95% CI 1.17-46.8)), 2.7 (adjusted OR 2.75 (95% CI 1.03-7.39)) and 2.6 times (adjusted OR = 2.6 (95% CI=1.01-6.67)), respectively (p < 0.05 for all parameters). No oxidative damage was observed among subjects. Past history of not engaging with any physical activities at the age of 45 to 54 years old increased risk of prostate cancer by approximately three folds (Adjusted OR 2.9(95% CI = 0.8-10.8)) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low fat diet, high intake of fruits, vegetables and lycopene rich foods and being physical active at middle age were found to be protective. Thus, it is essential for Malaysian men to consume adequate fruits and vegetables, reduce fat intake and engage in physical activity in order to reduce prostate cancer risk.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. suzanas@medic.ukm.my

    , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Anthropometry
    Carotenoids
    Case-Control Studies
    Comet Assay
    DNA Damage
    Diet
    Exercise
    Follow-Up Studies
    Fruit
    Humans
    Lycopene
    Malaysia
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Oxidative Stress
    Prognosis
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Vegetables

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21627352

    Citation

    Shahar, Suzana, et al. "Roles of Diet, Lifetime Physical Activity and Oxidative DNA Damage in the Occurrence of Prostate Cancer Among Men in Klang Valley, Malaysia." Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention : APJCP, vol. 12, no. 3, 2011, pp. 605-11.
    Shahar S, Shafurah S, Hasan Shaari NS, et al. Roles of diet, lifetime physical activity and oxidative DNA damage in the occurrence of prostate cancer among men in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(3):605-11.
    Shahar, S., Shafurah, S., Hasan Shaari, N. S., Rajikan, R., Rajab, N. F., Golkhalkhali, B., & Zainuddin, Z. M. (2011). Roles of diet, lifetime physical activity and oxidative DNA damage in the occurrence of prostate cancer among men in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention : APJCP, 12(3), pp. 605-11.
    Shahar S, et al. Roles of Diet, Lifetime Physical Activity and Oxidative DNA Damage in the Occurrence of Prostate Cancer Among Men in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(3):605-11. PubMed PMID: 21627352.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Roles of diet, lifetime physical activity and oxidative DNA damage in the occurrence of prostate cancer among men in Klang Valley, Malaysia. AU - Shahar,Suzana, AU - Shafurah,Siti, AU - Hasan Shaari,Nur Suraiya Abu, AU - Rajikan,Roslee, AU - Rajab,Nor Fadilah, AU - Golkhalkhali,Babak, AU - Zainuddin,Zulkifli Md, PY - 2011/6/2/entrez PY - 2011/6/2/pubmed PY - 2011/10/1/medline SP - 605 EP - 11 JF - Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP JO - Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. VL - 12 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of information on risk factors of prostate cancer, especially those related to dietary and lifestyle among Asian populations. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between dietary intake (macronutrients, fruits, vegetables and lycopene), lifetime physical activity and oxidative DNA damage with prostate cancer. DESIGN: A case control study was carried out among 105 subjects (case n=35, control n=70), matched for age and ethnicity. Data on sociodemographic, medical, dietary intake, consumption of lycopene rich food and lifetime physical activity were obtained through an interview based questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height and waist hip circumferences were also carried out on subjects. A total of 3 mL fasting venous blood was drawn to assess lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay. RESULTS: Cases had a significantly higher intake of fat (27.7 ± 5.5%) as compared to controls (25.1 ± 5.9%) (p < 0.05). Mean intakes of fruits and vegetables (3.11 ± 1.01 servings/d)(p < 0.05), fruits (1.23 ± 0.59 servings/d) (p<0.05) and vegetables (1.97 ± 0.94 servings/d) were higher in controls than cases (2.53 ± 1.01, 0.91 ∓ 0.69, 1.62 ± 0.82 servings/d). A total of 71% of cases did not met the recommendation of a minimum of three servings of fruits and vegetables daily, as compared to 34% of controls (p < 0.05) (adjusted OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.3-17.8)) (p < 0.05). Estimated lycopene intake among cases (2,339 ∓ 1,312 mcg/d) were lower than controls (3881 ∓ 3120 mcg/d) (p< 0.01). Estimated lycopene intake of less than 2,498 mcg/day (50th percentile) increased risk of prostate cancer by double [Adjusted OR 2.5 (95%CI 0.99-6.31)]. Intake of tomatoes, watermelon, guava, pomelo, papaya, mango, oranges, dragon fruit, carrot, tomato sauce and barbeque sauce were higher in controls compared to cases. Intake of tomato sauce of more than 2.24 g/d (25th percentile), papaya more than 22.7 g/d (50th percentile) and oranges more than 19.1g/h (50th percentile) reduced prostate cancer risk by 7.4 (Adjusted OR 7.4 (95% CI 1.17-46.8)), 2.7 (adjusted OR 2.75 (95% CI 1.03-7.39)) and 2.6 times (adjusted OR = 2.6 (95% CI=1.01-6.67)), respectively (p < 0.05 for all parameters). No oxidative damage was observed among subjects. Past history of not engaging with any physical activities at the age of 45 to 54 years old increased risk of prostate cancer by approximately three folds (Adjusted OR 2.9(95% CI = 0.8-10.8)) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low fat diet, high intake of fruits, vegetables and lycopene rich foods and being physical active at middle age were found to be protective. Thus, it is essential for Malaysian men to consume adequate fruits and vegetables, reduce fat intake and engage in physical activity in order to reduce prostate cancer risk. SN - 2476-762X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21627352/Roles_of_diet_lifetime_physical_activity_and_oxidative_DNA_damage_in_the_occurrence_of_prostate_cancer_among_men_in_Klang_Valley_Malaysia_ L2 - http://journal.waocp.org/?sid=Entrez:PubMed&amp;id=pmid:21627352&amp;key=2011.12.3.605 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -