Repeat blood culture positive for B. pseudomallei indicates an increased risk of death from melioidosis.Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Jun; 84(6):858-61.AJ
Melioidosis, a bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is notoriously difficult to cure despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy and has a mortality rate of up to 40%. We demonstrate that a blood culture positive for B. pseudomallei taken at the end of the first and/or second week after hospitalization for melioidosis is a strong prognostic factor for death (adjusted odds ratio = 4.2, 95% confidence interval = 2.1-8.7, P < 0.001 and adjusted odds ratio = 2.6, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-6.0, P = 0.03, respectively). However, repeat cultures of respiratory secretions, urine, throat swabs, or pus/surface swabs provide no prognostic information. This finding highlights the need for follow-up blood cultures in patients with melioidosis.