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Cannabinoids and metabolites in expectorated oral fluid after 8 days of controlled around-the-clock oral THC administration.
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 Aug; 401(2):599-607.AB

Abstract

Oral fluid (OF) is an increasingly accepted matrix for drug testing programs, but questions remain about its usefulness for monitoring cannabinoids. Expectorated OF specimens (n = 360) were obtained from 10 adult daily cannabis smokers before, during, and after 37 20-mg oral Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) doses over 9 days to characterize cannabinoid disposition in this matrix. Specimens were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron-impact ionization for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, cannabidiol, and cannabinol, and negative chemical ionization for 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Linear ranges for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, and cannabidiol were 0.25-50 ng/mL; cannabinol 1-50 ng/mL; and THCCOOH 5-500 pg/mL. THCCOOH was the most prevalent analyte in 344 specimens (96.9%), with concentrations up to 1,390.3 pg/mL. 11-hydroxy-THC, cannabidiol, and cannabinol were detected in 1, 1, and 3 specimens, respectively. THC was detected in only 13.8% of specimens. The highest THC concentrations were obtained at admission (median 1.4 ng/mL, range 0.3-113.6) from previously self-administered smoked cannabis. A total of 2.5 and 3.7% of specimens were THC-positive at the recommended Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2 ng/mL) and Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines (DRUID) (1 ng/mL) confirmation cutoffs, respectively. THC is currently the only analyte for monitoring cannabis exposure in OF; however, these data indicate chronic therapeutic oral THC administration and illicit oral THC use are unlikely to be identified with current guidelines. Measurement of THCCOOH may improve the detection and interpretation of OF cannabinoid tests and minimize the possibility of OF contamination from passive inhalation of cannabis smoke.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Center, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21637933

Citation

Milman, Garry, et al. "Cannabinoids and Metabolites in Expectorated Oral Fluid After 8 Days of Controlled Around-the-clock Oral THC Administration." Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 401, no. 2, 2011, pp. 599-607.
Milman G, Barnes AJ, Schwope DM, et al. Cannabinoids and metabolites in expectorated oral fluid after 8 days of controlled around-the-clock oral THC administration. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;401(2):599-607.
Milman, G., Barnes, A. J., Schwope, D. M., Schwilke, E. W., Goodwin, R. S., Kelly, D. L., Gorelick, D. A., & Huestis, M. A. (2011). Cannabinoids and metabolites in expectorated oral fluid after 8 days of controlled around-the-clock oral THC administration. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 401(2), 599-607. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-5066-4
Milman G, et al. Cannabinoids and Metabolites in Expectorated Oral Fluid After 8 Days of Controlled Around-the-clock Oral THC Administration. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;401(2):599-607. PubMed PMID: 21637933.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cannabinoids and metabolites in expectorated oral fluid after 8 days of controlled around-the-clock oral THC administration. AU - Milman,Garry, AU - Barnes,Allan J, AU - Schwope,David M, AU - Schwilke,Eugene W, AU - Goodwin,Robert S, AU - Kelly,Deana L, AU - Gorelick,David A, AU - Huestis,Marilyn A, Y1 - 2011/06/03/ PY - 2011/03/15/received PY - 2011/04/26/accepted PY - 2011/04/20/revised PY - 2011/6/4/entrez PY - 2011/6/4/pubmed PY - 2011/12/13/medline SP - 599 EP - 607 JF - Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry JO - Anal Bioanal Chem VL - 401 IS - 2 N2 - Oral fluid (OF) is an increasingly accepted matrix for drug testing programs, but questions remain about its usefulness for monitoring cannabinoids. Expectorated OF specimens (n = 360) were obtained from 10 adult daily cannabis smokers before, during, and after 37 20-mg oral Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) doses over 9 days to characterize cannabinoid disposition in this matrix. Specimens were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron-impact ionization for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, cannabidiol, and cannabinol, and negative chemical ionization for 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Linear ranges for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, and cannabidiol were 0.25-50 ng/mL; cannabinol 1-50 ng/mL; and THCCOOH 5-500 pg/mL. THCCOOH was the most prevalent analyte in 344 specimens (96.9%), with concentrations up to 1,390.3 pg/mL. 11-hydroxy-THC, cannabidiol, and cannabinol were detected in 1, 1, and 3 specimens, respectively. THC was detected in only 13.8% of specimens. The highest THC concentrations were obtained at admission (median 1.4 ng/mL, range 0.3-113.6) from previously self-administered smoked cannabis. A total of 2.5 and 3.7% of specimens were THC-positive at the recommended Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2 ng/mL) and Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines (DRUID) (1 ng/mL) confirmation cutoffs, respectively. THC is currently the only analyte for monitoring cannabis exposure in OF; however, these data indicate chronic therapeutic oral THC administration and illicit oral THC use are unlikely to be identified with current guidelines. Measurement of THCCOOH may improve the detection and interpretation of OF cannabinoid tests and minimize the possibility of OF contamination from passive inhalation of cannabis smoke. SN - 1618-2650 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21637933/Cannabinoids_and_metabolites_in_expectorated_oral_fluid_after_8_days_of_controlled_around_the_clock_oral_THC_administration_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-5066-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -