The cytoskeleton plays a modulatory role in the association between STIM1 and the Ca2+ channel subunits Orai1 and TRPC1.Biochem Pharmacol. 2011 Aug 15; 82(4):400-10.BP
Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is a major pathway for Ca(2+) influx in non-excitable cells. Recent studies favour a conformational coupling mechanism between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) sensor STIM1 and Ca(2+) permeable channels in the plasma membrane to explain SOCE. Previous studies have reported a role for the cytoskeleton modulating the activation of SOCE; therefore, here we have investigated whether the interaction between STIM1 and the Ca(2+) permeable channels is modulated by the actin or microtubular network. In HEK-293 cells, treatment with the microtubular disrupter colchicine enhanced both the activation of SOCE and the association between STIM1 and Orai1 or TRPC1 induced by thapsigargin (TG). Conversely, stabilization of the microtubules by paclitaxel attenuated TG-evoked activation of SOCE and the interaction between STIM1 and the Ca(2+) channels Orai1 and TRPC1, altogether suggesting that the microtubules act as a negative regulator of SOCE. Stabilization of the cortical actin filament layer results in inhibition of TG-evoked both association between STIM1, Orai1 and TRPC1 and SOCE. Interestingly, disruption of the actin filament network by cytochalasin D did not significantly modify TG-evoked association between STIM1 and Orai1 or TRPC1 but enhanced TG-stimulated SOCE. Finally, inhibition of calmodulin by calmidazolium enhances TG-evoked SOCE and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton results in inhibition of TG-evoked association of calmodulin with Orai1 and TRPC1. Thus, we demonstrate that the cytoskeleton plays an essential role in the regulation of SOCE through the modulation of the interaction between their main molecular components.