[Comparison of oxacillin, cefoxitin, ceftizoxime, and moxalactam disk diffusion methods for detection of methicillin susceptibility in staphylococci].Mikrobiyol Bul. 2011 Apr; 45(2):258-65.MB
Penicillin binding protein 2a/2' (PBP2a/PBP2') which is encoded by the mecA gene, is responsible for the methicillin resistance in staphylococci. Detection of methicillin resistance with phenotypic methods is still a problem especially because of heterogenous expression of mecA gene. Although mecA gene determination by polymerase chain reaction is considered as the gold standard method, molecular tests are not easily applied in all routine laboratories. Thus, for the rapid and accurate diagnosis of MRSA strains, easy and practical phenotypic tests are still required. This study was conducted to compare the oxacillin (OX), cefoxitin (CFX), ceftizoxime (CZX), and moxolactam (MOX) susceptibility testing by disk diffusion method for the detection of methicillin resistance in staphylococci. A total of 247 staphylococci (125 Staphylococcus aureus and 122 coagulase-negative staphylococci; CNS) isolated from various clinical specimens (114 wound and soft tissue materials, 51 urine, 48 blood, 30 respiratory tract, and four other samples) of inpatients and outpatients, were included in this study. PBP2a latex agglutination test was used as the reference method for the recognition of methicillin resistance; four antibiotic disks tested and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were determined for each of them. According to PBP2a latex agglutination test 66 (54.1%) of CNS and 53 (42.4%) of S.aureus isolates were found methicillin- resistant. OX and MOX disks detected 113 (63 CNS and 50 S.aureus) methicillin-resistant strain out of 119 PBP2a positive isolates, where CFX and CZX disks detected 110 (60 CNS and 50 S.aureus) of them. Among 128 PBP2a negative isolates, 123 (52 CNS and 71 S.aureus) were detected as susceptible with OX, 127 (55 CNS and 72 S.aureus) with CFX and CZX, 126 (54 CNS and 72 S.aureus) with MOX. According to these results, the sensitivities and specificities of OX, CFX, CZX, and MOX disks were; 95.4% and 92.8%, 90.9% and 98.2%, 90.9% and 98.2%, 95.4% and 96.4%, respectively for CNS and 94.3% and 98.6%, 94.3% and 100%, 94.3% and 100%, 94.3% and 100%, respectively for S.aureus. The difference between sensitivities and specificities of tested antibiotic disks were not found statistically significant. In conclusion, due to the problems in detection of methicillin resistance with phenotypic methods, the use of different mecA gene-inducing antibiotic disks at the same time, and utilization of molecular methods as reference method might be suggested, when a discordance is observed between the antibiotic disks.