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The incidence of drugs of impairment in oral fluid from random roadside testing.
Forensic Sci Int. 2012 Feb 10; 215(1-3):28-31.FS

Abstract

Oral fluid (OF) has become a popular specimen to test for presence of drugs, particularly in regards to road safety. In Victoria, OF specimens from drivers have been used to test for the presence of methylamphetamine (MA) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) since 2003 and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) since 2006. LC-MS/MS has been used to test the most recent 853 submitted OF specimens from Victoria Police for 31 drugs of abuse including those listed in the Australian Standard AS4760-2006. At least one proscribed drug was detected in 96% of drivers, of which MA was the most common (77%), followed by THC (42%), MDMA (17%) and the combination of all three (3.9%). Opioids were detected in 14% of drivers of which 4.8% were positive for 6-acetylmorphine and 3.3% for methadone. The incidence of the opioids tramadol (1.2%) and oxycodone (1.1%) were relatively low. Cocaine (8.0%) was as commonly detected as benzodiazepines (8.0%), and was almost always found in combination with MA (7.9%). Samples positive to benzodiazepines were largely due to diazepam (3.5%) and alprazolam (3.4%), with only 0.2% of drivers combining the two. Ketamine was also detected in 1.5% of cases. While the incidences of the proscribed drugs itself are concerning, it is clear that many drivers are also using other drugs capable of causing impairment.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine, Monash University, Australia. markc@vifm.orgNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21665392

Citation

Chu, Mark, et al. "The Incidence of Drugs of Impairment in Oral Fluid From Random Roadside Testing." Forensic Science International, vol. 215, no. 1-3, 2012, pp. 28-31.
Chu M, Gerostamoulos D, Beyer J, et al. The incidence of drugs of impairment in oral fluid from random roadside testing. Forensic Sci Int. 2012;215(1-3):28-31.
Chu, M., Gerostamoulos, D., Beyer, J., Rodda, L., Boorman, M., & Drummer, O. H. (2012). The incidence of drugs of impairment in oral fluid from random roadside testing. Forensic Science International, 215(1-3), 28-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.05.012
Chu M, et al. The Incidence of Drugs of Impairment in Oral Fluid From Random Roadside Testing. Forensic Sci Int. 2012 Feb 10;215(1-3):28-31. PubMed PMID: 21665392.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The incidence of drugs of impairment in oral fluid from random roadside testing. AU - Chu,Mark, AU - Gerostamoulos,Dimitri, AU - Beyer,Jochen, AU - Rodda,Luke, AU - Boorman,Martin, AU - Drummer,Olaf H, Y1 - 2011/06/12/ PY - 2010/10/15/received PY - 2011/05/11/revised PY - 2011/05/11/accepted PY - 2011/6/14/entrez PY - 2011/6/15/pubmed PY - 2012/6/5/medline SP - 28 EP - 31 JF - Forensic science international JO - Forensic Sci Int VL - 215 IS - 1-3 N2 - Oral fluid (OF) has become a popular specimen to test for presence of drugs, particularly in regards to road safety. In Victoria, OF specimens from drivers have been used to test for the presence of methylamphetamine (MA) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) since 2003 and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) since 2006. LC-MS/MS has been used to test the most recent 853 submitted OF specimens from Victoria Police for 31 drugs of abuse including those listed in the Australian Standard AS4760-2006. At least one proscribed drug was detected in 96% of drivers, of which MA was the most common (77%), followed by THC (42%), MDMA (17%) and the combination of all three (3.9%). Opioids were detected in 14% of drivers of which 4.8% were positive for 6-acetylmorphine and 3.3% for methadone. The incidence of the opioids tramadol (1.2%) and oxycodone (1.1%) were relatively low. Cocaine (8.0%) was as commonly detected as benzodiazepines (8.0%), and was almost always found in combination with MA (7.9%). Samples positive to benzodiazepines were largely due to diazepam (3.5%) and alprazolam (3.4%), with only 0.2% of drivers combining the two. Ketamine was also detected in 1.5% of cases. While the incidences of the proscribed drugs itself are concerning, it is clear that many drivers are also using other drugs capable of causing impairment. SN - 1872-6283 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21665392/The_incidence_of_drugs_of_impairment_in_oral_fluid_from_random_roadside_testing_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0379-0738(11)00227-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -