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Alcohol and cardiovascular health.
Integr Comp Biol. 2004 Aug; 44(4):324-8.IC

Abstract

The substantial medical risks of heavy alcohol drinking as well as the existence of a safe drinking limit have been evident for centuries. Modern epidemiologic studies also show lower risk of both morbidity and mortality among lighter drinkers. Defining "heavy" as ≥3 standard drinks per day, the alcohol-mortality relationship is a J-curve with risk highest for heavy drinkers, lowest for light drinkers and intermediate for abstainers. A number of non-cardiovascular and cardiovascular problems contribute to the increased mortality risk of heavier drinkers. The lower risk of light drinkers is due mostly to lower risk of the most common cardiovascular condition, coronary heart disease (CHD). Thus, disparate relationships of alcoholic drinking to various cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular conditions constitute a modern concept of alcohol and health. Increased cardiovascular risks of heavy drinking include: 1) alcoholic cardiomyopathy, 2) systemic hypertension (high blood pressure), 3) heart rhythm disturbances in binge drinkers, and 4) hemorrhagic stroke. Lighter drinking is unrelated to increased risk of any cardiovascular condition and, in observational studies, is consistently related to lower risk of CHD and ischemic stroke. A protective hypothesis for CHD is robustly supported by evidence for plausible biological mechanisms attributable to ethyl alcohol. International comparisons and some prospective study data suggest that wine is more protective against CHD than liquor or beer. Possible non-alcohol beneficial components in wine (especially red) support possible extra protection by wine, but a healthier pattern of drinking or more favorable risk traits in wine drinkers may also be involved.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Senior Consultant in Cardiology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, 280 West MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, California 94611.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21676716

Citation

Klatsky, Arthur L.. "Alcohol and Cardiovascular Health." Integrative and Comparative Biology, vol. 44, no. 4, 2004, pp. 324-8.
Klatsky AL. Alcohol and cardiovascular health. Integr Comp Biol. 2004;44(4):324-8.
Klatsky, A. L. (2004). Alcohol and cardiovascular health. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 44(4), 324-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/44.4.324
Klatsky AL. Alcohol and Cardiovascular Health. Integr Comp Biol. 2004;44(4):324-8. PubMed PMID: 21676716.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Alcohol and cardiovascular health. A1 - Klatsky,Arthur L, PY - 2011/6/17/entrez PY - 2004/8/1/pubmed PY - 2004/8/1/medline SP - 324 EP - 8 JF - Integrative and comparative biology JO - Integr. Comp. Biol. VL - 44 IS - 4 N2 - The substantial medical risks of heavy alcohol drinking as well as the existence of a safe drinking limit have been evident for centuries. Modern epidemiologic studies also show lower risk of both morbidity and mortality among lighter drinkers. Defining "heavy" as ≥3 standard drinks per day, the alcohol-mortality relationship is a J-curve with risk highest for heavy drinkers, lowest for light drinkers and intermediate for abstainers. A number of non-cardiovascular and cardiovascular problems contribute to the increased mortality risk of heavier drinkers. The lower risk of light drinkers is due mostly to lower risk of the most common cardiovascular condition, coronary heart disease (CHD). Thus, disparate relationships of alcoholic drinking to various cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular conditions constitute a modern concept of alcohol and health. Increased cardiovascular risks of heavy drinking include: 1) alcoholic cardiomyopathy, 2) systemic hypertension (high blood pressure), 3) heart rhythm disturbances in binge drinkers, and 4) hemorrhagic stroke. Lighter drinking is unrelated to increased risk of any cardiovascular condition and, in observational studies, is consistently related to lower risk of CHD and ischemic stroke. A protective hypothesis for CHD is robustly supported by evidence for plausible biological mechanisms attributable to ethyl alcohol. International comparisons and some prospective study data suggest that wine is more protective against CHD than liquor or beer. Possible non-alcohol beneficial components in wine (especially red) support possible extra protection by wine, but a healthier pattern of drinking or more favorable risk traits in wine drinkers may also be involved. SN - 1540-7063 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21676716/Alcohol_and_cardiovascular_health_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/icb/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/icb/44.4.324 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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