Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic, daily Cannabis smokers during sustained, monitored abstinence.
Clin Chem. 2011 Aug; 57(8):1127-36.CC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Oral fluid (OF) is an accepted alternative biological matrix for drug treatment, workplace, and DUID (driving under the influence of drugs) investigations, but establishing the cannabinoid OF detection window and concentration cutoff criteria are important.

METHODS

Cannabinoid concentrations were quantified in OF from chronic, daily cannabis smokers during monitored abstinence. Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)(3), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) were determined in daily OF samples collected with the Quantisal™ device. GC-MS limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.5 μg/L for THC and CBD, 1 μg/L for CBN, and 7.5 ng/L for THCCOOH.

RESULTS

After providing written informed consent for this institutional review board-approved study, 28 participants resided from 4 to 33 days on the secure research unit and provided 577 OF specimens. At the LOQ, THC was generally quantifiable for 48 h, whereas CBD and CBN were detected only at admission. Median THCCOOH detection time was 13 days (CI 6.4-19.6 days). Mean THC detection rates decreased from 89.3% at admission to 17.9% after 48 h, whereas THCCOOH gradually decreased from 89.3% to 64.3% within 4 days. Criteria of THC ≥2 μg/L and THCCOOH ≥20 ng/L reduced detection to <48 h in chronic cannabis smokers. An OF THCCOOH/THC ratio ≤4 ng/μg or presence of CBD or CBN may indicate more recent smoking.

CONCLUSIONS

THC, THCCOOH, CBD, and CBN quantification in confirmatory OF cannabinoid testing is recommended. Inclusion of multiple cannabinoid cutoffs accounted for residual cannabinoid excretion in OF from chronic, daily cannabis smokers and could reduce the potential for positive test results from passive cannabis smoke exposure and lead to greatly improved test interpretation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, MD, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21677094

Citation

Lee, Dayong, et al. "Oral Fluid Cannabinoids in Chronic, Daily Cannabis Smokers During Sustained, Monitored Abstinence." Clinical Chemistry, vol. 57, no. 8, 2011, pp. 1127-36.
Lee D, Milman G, Barnes AJ, et al. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic, daily Cannabis smokers during sustained, monitored abstinence. Clin Chem. 2011;57(8):1127-36.
Lee, D., Milman, G., Barnes, A. J., Goodwin, R. S., Hirvonen, J., & Huestis, M. A. (2011). Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic, daily Cannabis smokers during sustained, monitored abstinence. Clinical Chemistry, 57(8), 1127-36. https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2011.164822
Lee D, et al. Oral Fluid Cannabinoids in Chronic, Daily Cannabis Smokers During Sustained, Monitored Abstinence. Clin Chem. 2011;57(8):1127-36. PubMed PMID: 21677094.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic, daily Cannabis smokers during sustained, monitored abstinence. AU - Lee,Dayong, AU - Milman,Garry, AU - Barnes,Allan J, AU - Goodwin,Robert S, AU - Hirvonen,Jussi, AU - Huestis,Marilyn A, Y1 - 2011/06/15/ PY - 2011/6/17/entrez PY - 2011/6/17/pubmed PY - 2011/9/29/medline SP - 1127 EP - 36 JF - Clinical chemistry JO - Clin. Chem. VL - 57 IS - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND: Oral fluid (OF) is an accepted alternative biological matrix for drug treatment, workplace, and DUID (driving under the influence of drugs) investigations, but establishing the cannabinoid OF detection window and concentration cutoff criteria are important. METHODS: Cannabinoid concentrations were quantified in OF from chronic, daily cannabis smokers during monitored abstinence. Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)(3), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) were determined in daily OF samples collected with the Quantisal™ device. GC-MS limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.5 μg/L for THC and CBD, 1 μg/L for CBN, and 7.5 ng/L for THCCOOH. RESULTS: After providing written informed consent for this institutional review board-approved study, 28 participants resided from 4 to 33 days on the secure research unit and provided 577 OF specimens. At the LOQ, THC was generally quantifiable for 48 h, whereas CBD and CBN were detected only at admission. Median THCCOOH detection time was 13 days (CI 6.4-19.6 days). Mean THC detection rates decreased from 89.3% at admission to 17.9% after 48 h, whereas THCCOOH gradually decreased from 89.3% to 64.3% within 4 days. Criteria of THC ≥2 μg/L and THCCOOH ≥20 ng/L reduced detection to <48 h in chronic cannabis smokers. An OF THCCOOH/THC ratio ≤4 ng/μg or presence of CBD or CBN may indicate more recent smoking. CONCLUSIONS: THC, THCCOOH, CBD, and CBN quantification in confirmatory OF cannabinoid testing is recommended. Inclusion of multiple cannabinoid cutoffs accounted for residual cannabinoid excretion in OF from chronic, daily cannabis smokers and could reduce the potential for positive test results from passive cannabis smoke exposure and lead to greatly improved test interpretation. SN - 1530-8561 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21677094/Oral_fluid_cannabinoids_in_chronic_daily_Cannabis_smokers_during_sustained_monitored_abstinence_ L2 - http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=21677094 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -