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Physical fitness as a protective factor for cognitive impairment in a prospective population-based study in Germany.

Abstract

To evaluate the predictive effects of subjective measures of physical activity (PA) and objective measures of physical fitness (PF) on dementia risk, Participants of the prospective population-based ILSE-study (*1930-1932; 12-year follow-up) were examined at three examination waves (t1 : 1993/94; t2 : 1997/98; t3 : 2005/07). 381 subjects of the original cohort (n = 500) were re-examined at t3. 29% of the subjects who were cognitively healthy at baseline received the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 7% of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subjects were screened for physical and mental health using medical interviews, physical, and neuropsychological examinations. Participants completed a questionnaire on their current and past PA at t1. Subjects were classified as physically active if they reported a regular sport activity for at least 2 hours per week in the past year. Muscular strength (handgrip) and motor coordination (balance) served as objective indicators of PF. Subjects who passed the balance-test at t1 had a reduced risk of developing MCI/AD at t3 (OR = 0.35, 95%CI 0.19-0.66, p < 0.01) and performed significantly better on various neuropsychological measures. Muscular strength or subjective reports of PA did not predict MCI/AD development. Our results confirm the hypothesis that PF acts as a protective factor for the development of cognitive disorders. In our study, context, motor coordination served as a better predictor than muscular strength or self-rated PA. Since subjects with cognitive disorders due to cerebral and/or systemic disorders were excluded from the analyses, our findings suggest that the effect of skill-related PF extends beyond the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Section of Geriatric Psychiatry, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

    , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Aged
    Aging
    Alzheimer Disease
    Cognition Disorders
    Cohort Studies
    Educational Status
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Germany
    Humans
    Longitudinal Studies
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Motor Activity
    Muscle Strength
    Neuropsychological Tests
    Physical Fitness
    Population
    Prospective Studies
    Psychomotor Performance
    Risk Assessment
    Social Class
    Sports

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21694450

    Citation

    Sattler, Christine, et al. "Physical Fitness as a Protective Factor for Cognitive Impairment in a Prospective Population-based Study in Germany." Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD, vol. 26, no. 4, 2011, pp. 709-18.
    Sattler C, Erickson KI, Toro P, et al. Physical fitness as a protective factor for cognitive impairment in a prospective population-based study in Germany. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011;26(4):709-18.
    Sattler, C., Erickson, K. I., Toro, P., & Schröder, J. (2011). Physical fitness as a protective factor for cognitive impairment in a prospective population-based study in Germany. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD, 26(4), pp. 709-18. doi:10.3233/JAD-2011-110548.
    Sattler C, et al. Physical Fitness as a Protective Factor for Cognitive Impairment in a Prospective Population-based Study in Germany. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011;26(4):709-18. PubMed PMID: 21694450.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Physical fitness as a protective factor for cognitive impairment in a prospective population-based study in Germany. AU - Sattler,Christine, AU - Erickson,Kirk I, AU - Toro,Pablo, AU - Schröder,Johannes, PY - 2011/6/23/entrez PY - 2011/6/23/pubmed PY - 2012/1/27/medline SP - 709 EP - 18 JF - Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD JO - J. Alzheimers Dis. VL - 26 IS - 4 N2 - To evaluate the predictive effects of subjective measures of physical activity (PA) and objective measures of physical fitness (PF) on dementia risk, Participants of the prospective population-based ILSE-study (*1930-1932; 12-year follow-up) were examined at three examination waves (t1 : 1993/94; t2 : 1997/98; t3 : 2005/07). 381 subjects of the original cohort (n = 500) were re-examined at t3. 29% of the subjects who were cognitively healthy at baseline received the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 7% of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subjects were screened for physical and mental health using medical interviews, physical, and neuropsychological examinations. Participants completed a questionnaire on their current and past PA at t1. Subjects were classified as physically active if they reported a regular sport activity for at least 2 hours per week in the past year. Muscular strength (handgrip) and motor coordination (balance) served as objective indicators of PF. Subjects who passed the balance-test at t1 had a reduced risk of developing MCI/AD at t3 (OR = 0.35, 95%CI 0.19-0.66, p < 0.01) and performed significantly better on various neuropsychological measures. Muscular strength or subjective reports of PA did not predict MCI/AD development. Our results confirm the hypothesis that PF acts as a protective factor for the development of cognitive disorders. In our study, context, motor coordination served as a better predictor than muscular strength or self-rated PA. Since subjects with cognitive disorders due to cerebral and/or systemic disorders were excluded from the analyses, our findings suggest that the effect of skill-related PF extends beyond the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors. SN - 1875-8908 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21694450/Physical_fitness_as_a_protective_factor_for_cognitive_impairment_in_a_prospective_population_based_study_in_Germany_ L2 - https://content.iospress.com/openurl?genre=article&amp;id=doi:10.3233/JAD-2011-110548 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -