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Emotion rendering in music: range and characteristic values of seven musical variables.
Cortex. 2011 Oct; 47(9):1068-81.C

Abstract

Many studies on the synthesis of emotional expression in music performance have focused on the effect of individual performance variables on perceived emotional quality by making a systematical variation of variables. However, most of the studies have used a predetermined small number of levels for each variable, and the selection of these levels has often been done arbitrarily. The main aim of this research work is to improve upon existing methodologies by taking a synthesis approach. In a production experiment, 20 performers were asked to manipulate values of 7 musical variables simultaneously (tempo, sound level, articulation, phrasing, register, timbre, and attack speed) for communicating 5 different emotional expressions (neutral, happy, scary, peaceful, sad) for each of 4 scores. The scores were compositions communicating four different emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, calmness). Emotional expressions and music scores were presented in combination and in random order for each performer for a total of 5 × 4 stimuli. The experiment allowed for a systematic investigation of the interaction between emotion of each score and intended expressed emotions by performers. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), repeated measures, with factors emotion and score was conducted on the participants' values separately for each of the seven musical factors. There are two main results. The first one is that musical variables were manipulated in the same direction as reported in previous research on emotional expressive music performance. The second one is the identification for each of the five emotions the mean values and ranges of the five musical variables tempo, sound level, articulation, register, and instrument. These values resulted to be independent from the particular score and its emotion. The results presented in this study therefore allow for both the design and control of emotionally expressive computerized musical stimuli that are more ecologically valid than stimuli without performance variations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

KTH School of Computer Science and Communication, Stockholm, Sweden. roberto@kth.seNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21696717

Citation

Bresin, Roberto, and Anders Friberg. "Emotion Rendering in Music: Range and Characteristic Values of Seven Musical Variables." Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior, vol. 47, no. 9, 2011, pp. 1068-81.
Bresin R, Friberg A. Emotion rendering in music: range and characteristic values of seven musical variables. Cortex. 2011;47(9):1068-81.
Bresin, R., & Friberg, A. (2011). Emotion rendering in music: range and characteristic values of seven musical variables. Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior, 47(9), 1068-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2011.05.009
Bresin R, Friberg A. Emotion Rendering in Music: Range and Characteristic Values of Seven Musical Variables. Cortex. 2011;47(9):1068-81. PubMed PMID: 21696717.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Emotion rendering in music: range and characteristic values of seven musical variables. AU - Bresin,Roberto, AU - Friberg,Anders, Y1 - 2011/05/17/ PY - 2009/10/07/received PY - 2010/05/24/revised PY - 2011/02/16/accepted PY - 2011/6/24/entrez PY - 2011/6/24/pubmed PY - 2011/12/14/medline SP - 1068 EP - 81 JF - Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior JO - Cortex VL - 47 IS - 9 N2 - Many studies on the synthesis of emotional expression in music performance have focused on the effect of individual performance variables on perceived emotional quality by making a systematical variation of variables. However, most of the studies have used a predetermined small number of levels for each variable, and the selection of these levels has often been done arbitrarily. The main aim of this research work is to improve upon existing methodologies by taking a synthesis approach. In a production experiment, 20 performers were asked to manipulate values of 7 musical variables simultaneously (tempo, sound level, articulation, phrasing, register, timbre, and attack speed) for communicating 5 different emotional expressions (neutral, happy, scary, peaceful, sad) for each of 4 scores. The scores were compositions communicating four different emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, calmness). Emotional expressions and music scores were presented in combination and in random order for each performer for a total of 5 × 4 stimuli. The experiment allowed for a systematic investigation of the interaction between emotion of each score and intended expressed emotions by performers. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), repeated measures, with factors emotion and score was conducted on the participants' values separately for each of the seven musical factors. There are two main results. The first one is that musical variables were manipulated in the same direction as reported in previous research on emotional expressive music performance. The second one is the identification for each of the five emotions the mean values and ranges of the five musical variables tempo, sound level, articulation, register, and instrument. These values resulted to be independent from the particular score and its emotion. The results presented in this study therefore allow for both the design and control of emotionally expressive computerized musical stimuli that are more ecologically valid than stimuli without performance variations. SN - 1973-8102 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21696717/Emotion_rendering_in_music:_range_and_characteristic_values_of_seven_musical_variables_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0010-9452(11)00153-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -