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Gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to maternal dietary heme iron and nonheme iron intake.
Diabetes Care. 2011 Jul; 34(7):1564-9.DC

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Higher heme iron intake is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. However, no previous study has evaluated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk in relation to heme iron intake during pregnancy. We investigated associations of maternal preconceptional and early pregnancy heme and nonheme iron intake with subsequent GDM risk.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3,158 pregnant women. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess maternal diet. Multivariable generalized linear regression models were used to derive estimates of relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs.

RESULTS

Approximately 5.0% of the cohort developed GDM (n=158). Heme iron intake was positively and significantly associated with GDM risk (Ptrend=0.04). After adjusting for confounders, women reporting the highest heme iron intake levels (≥1.52 vs. <0.48 mg per day) experienced a 3.31-fold-increased GDM risk (95% CI 1.02-10.72). In fully adjusted models, we noted that a 1-mg per day increase in heme iron was associated with a 51% increased GDM risk (RR 1.51 [95% CI 0.99-2.36]). Nonheme iron was inversely, though not statistically significantly, associated with GDM risk, and the corresponding RRs were 1.00, 0.83, 0.62, and 0.61 across quartiles of nonheme iron intake (Ptrend=0.08).

CONCLUSIONS

High levels of dietary heme iron intake during the preconceptional and early pregnancy period may be associated with increased GDM risk. Associations of GDM risk with dietary nonheme iron intake are less clear. Confirmation of these findings by future studies is warranted.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA. chun-fang.qiu@swedish.orgNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21709295

Citation

Qiu, Chunfang, et al. "Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Relation to Maternal Dietary Heme Iron and Nonheme Iron Intake." Diabetes Care, vol. 34, no. 7, 2011, pp. 1564-9.
Qiu C, Zhang C, Gelaye B, et al. Gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to maternal dietary heme iron and nonheme iron intake. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(7):1564-9.
Qiu, C., Zhang, C., Gelaye, B., Enquobahrie, D. A., Frederick, I. O., & Williams, M. A. (2011). Gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to maternal dietary heme iron and nonheme iron intake. Diabetes Care, 34(7), 1564-9. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc11-0135
Qiu C, et al. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Relation to Maternal Dietary Heme Iron and Nonheme Iron Intake. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(7):1564-9. PubMed PMID: 21709295.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to maternal dietary heme iron and nonheme iron intake. AU - Qiu,Chunfang, AU - Zhang,Cuilin, AU - Gelaye,Bizu, AU - Enquobahrie,Daniel A, AU - Frederick,Ihunnaya O, AU - Williams,Michelle A, PY - 2011/6/29/entrez PY - 2011/6/29/pubmed PY - 2011/10/20/medline SP - 1564 EP - 9 JF - Diabetes care JO - Diabetes Care VL - 34 IS - 7 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Higher heme iron intake is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. However, no previous study has evaluated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk in relation to heme iron intake during pregnancy. We investigated associations of maternal preconceptional and early pregnancy heme and nonheme iron intake with subsequent GDM risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3,158 pregnant women. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess maternal diet. Multivariable generalized linear regression models were used to derive estimates of relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Approximately 5.0% of the cohort developed GDM (n=158). Heme iron intake was positively and significantly associated with GDM risk (Ptrend=0.04). After adjusting for confounders, women reporting the highest heme iron intake levels (≥1.52 vs. <0.48 mg per day) experienced a 3.31-fold-increased GDM risk (95% CI 1.02-10.72). In fully adjusted models, we noted that a 1-mg per day increase in heme iron was associated with a 51% increased GDM risk (RR 1.51 [95% CI 0.99-2.36]). Nonheme iron was inversely, though not statistically significantly, associated with GDM risk, and the corresponding RRs were 1.00, 0.83, 0.62, and 0.61 across quartiles of nonheme iron intake (Ptrend=0.08). CONCLUSIONS: High levels of dietary heme iron intake during the preconceptional and early pregnancy period may be associated with increased GDM risk. Associations of GDM risk with dietary nonheme iron intake are less clear. Confirmation of these findings by future studies is warranted. SN - 1935-5548 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21709295/Gestational_diabetes_mellitus_in_relation_to_maternal_dietary_heme_iron_and_nonheme_iron_intake_ L2 - http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=21709295 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -