Surface ultrastructure of juvenile and adult Acanthoparyphium tyosenense (Digenea: Echinostomatidae).J Parasitol. 2011 Dec; 97(6):1049-54.JP
The tegumental ultrastructure of juvenile and adult Acanthoparyphium tyosenense (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) was observed by scanning electron microscopy. One- to 3-day-old juveniles and 10-day-old adults were harvested from chicks experimentally fed metacercariae from a bivalve, Mactra veneriformis. The juvenile worms were minute, curved ventrally, and had 23 collar spines characteristically arranged in a single row. The lips of the oral sucker had 7 single aciliated sensory papillae and 4 grouped uniciliated sensory papillae. The ventral sucker had 25 aciliated round swellings on its lip. The anterolateral surface between the 2 suckers was densely packed with tongue-shaped tegumental spines, and the ventral surface just posterior to the ventral sucker was covered with peg-like spines. Retractile, peg-like spines were seen on the anterolateral surface, whereas scale-like spines with round tips and broad bases were sparsely distributed posterior to the ventral sucker. The cirrus was characteristically protruding and armed with minute spines. The surface ultrastructure of A. tyosenense was unique, especially in the number and arrangement of collar spines, shape, and distribution of tegumental spines and in distribution of sensory papillae.