Antimicrobial resistance trends in blood culture positive Salmonella Typhi isolates from Pondicherry, India, 2005-2009.Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Mar; 18(3):239-45.CM
Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, a major public health concern in developing countries. Recently, there has been an upsurge in the occurrence of bacterial isolates that are resistant to ciprofloxacin, and the emergence of broad spectrum β-lactamases in typhoidal salmonellae constitutes a new challenge for the clinician. A total of 337 blood culture isolates of S. Typhi, isolated from Pondicherry, India, between January 2005 and December 2009, were investigated using phenotypic, molecular and serological methods. Of the 337 isolates, 74 (22%) were found to be multidrug resistant (MDR) and 264 (78%) nalidixic acid resistant (NAR). Isolates with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin possessed single mutations in the gyrA gene. A high rate of resistance (8%) was found to ciprofloxacin. All isolates with a ciprofloxacin MIC ≥ 4 mg/L possessed both double mutations in the QRDR of the gyrA gene and a single mutation in the parC gene. Active efflux pump mechanisms were also found to be involved in ciprofloxacin resistance. Finally, a large number of PFGE patterns (non-clonal genotypes) were observed among the S. Typhi isolates. In conclusion, a high rate of ciprofloxacin resistance was observed in comparison to other endemic areas in blood culture isolates of S. Typhi from Pondicherry, India, with steadily increasing NAR but decreasing MDR isolations over the study period. This is most likely to be due to an increased use of ciprofloxacin as a first-line drug of choice over more traditional antimicrobial agents for the treatment of typhoid fever.