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Glycemic control with insulin glargine plus insulin glulisine versus premixed insulin analogues in real-world practices: a cost-effectiveness study with a randomized pragmatic trial design.
Clin Ther 2011; 33(7):841-50CT

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cost can be an important consideration, along with safety and efficacy, in deciding the most appropriate treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes. Both basal-bolus and premixed insulin analogue regimens are widely used in clinical practice; however, limited information is available regarding cost-effectiveness.

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to compare glycemic control, cost-effectiveness, and quality of life effects of insulin glargine plus insulin glulisine (glargine/glulisine) versus premixed insulin analogues in real-world clinical practice.

METHODS

Adults with type 2 diabetes (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA(1c)] ≥7.0%) at 3 US endocrinology centers were randomly assigned to receive either glargine/glulisine or premixed insulin analogues and continued treatment following the centers' usual practice. HbA(1c), weight, insulin dose, concomitant oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) usage, and hypoglycemia were evaluated at baseline and 3, 6, and 9 months. Medication costs, including costs for all insulin or OAD regimens, were estimated using published wholesale acquisition costs.

RESULTS

A total of 197 patients were randomized to receive glargine/glulisine therapy (n = 106) or premixed analogue therapy (n = 91). Overall, the mean age was 56 years, the mean duration of diabetes was 13 years, with a mean HbA(1c) of 9.25% and mean BMI of 35.8 kg/m(2) at baseline. Patients randomized to receive glargine/glulisine had a greater mean HbA(1c) reduction from baseline (-2.3%) than patients receiving a premixed analogue regimen (-1.7%). Adjusted mean follow-up HbA(1c) was 6.9% versus 7.5%, respectively (difference, -0.59%; P < 0.01). The glargine/glulisine group also used a lower mean number of OADs (0.86 vs 1.14; difference, -0.28; P = 0.04) but had a higher weight (240 vs 235 lb; difference, 4.55 lb; P = 0.03) than the premixed analogue group at follow-up. There were no significant differences in daily insulin dose and rates of hypoglycemia. Overall medication costs per 1.0% reduction in HbA(1c) were $841 with glargine/glulisine and $1308 with premixed analogues.

CONCLUSIONS

Overall, treatment with glargine/glulisine provided greater improvement in glycemic control and may represent a more cost-effective treatment option than premixed regimens for patients with type 2 diabetes in real-world clinical practice. However, due to the pragmatic trial design, the study concluded before follow-up assessments were available for all randomized patients.

Authors+Show Affiliations

MODEL Clinical Research, Baltimore, Maryland 21204, USA. pal3420@yahoo.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21719107

Citation

Levin, Philip A., et al. "Glycemic Control With Insulin Glargine Plus Insulin Glulisine Versus Premixed Insulin Analogues in Real-world Practices: a Cost-effectiveness Study With a Randomized Pragmatic Trial Design." Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 33, no. 7, 2011, pp. 841-50.
Levin PA, Zhang Q, Mersey JH, et al. Glycemic control with insulin glargine plus insulin glulisine versus premixed insulin analogues in real-world practices: a cost-effectiveness study with a randomized pragmatic trial design. Clin Ther. 2011;33(7):841-50.
Levin, P. A., Zhang, Q., Mersey, J. H., Lee, F. Y., Bromberger, L. A., Bhushan, M., & Bhushan, R. (2011). Glycemic control with insulin glargine plus insulin glulisine versus premixed insulin analogues in real-world practices: a cost-effectiveness study with a randomized pragmatic trial design. Clinical Therapeutics, 33(7), pp. 841-50. doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2011.05.091.
Levin PA, et al. Glycemic Control With Insulin Glargine Plus Insulin Glulisine Versus Premixed Insulin Analogues in Real-world Practices: a Cost-effectiveness Study With a Randomized Pragmatic Trial Design. Clin Ther. 2011;33(7):841-50. PubMed PMID: 21719107.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Glycemic control with insulin glargine plus insulin glulisine versus premixed insulin analogues in real-world practices: a cost-effectiveness study with a randomized pragmatic trial design. AU - Levin,Philip A, AU - Zhang,Quanwu, AU - Mersey,James H, AU - Lee,Francis Y, AU - Bromberger,Lee A, AU - Bhushan,Madhu, AU - Bhushan,Rajat, Y1 - 2011/06/30/ PY - 2011/05/26/accepted PY - 2011/7/2/entrez PY - 2011/7/2/pubmed PY - 2011/12/13/medline SP - 841 EP - 50 JF - Clinical therapeutics JO - Clin Ther VL - 33 IS - 7 N2 - BACKGROUND: Cost can be an important consideration, along with safety and efficacy, in deciding the most appropriate treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes. Both basal-bolus and premixed insulin analogue regimens are widely used in clinical practice; however, limited information is available regarding cost-effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to compare glycemic control, cost-effectiveness, and quality of life effects of insulin glargine plus insulin glulisine (glargine/glulisine) versus premixed insulin analogues in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: Adults with type 2 diabetes (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA(1c)] ≥7.0%) at 3 US endocrinology centers were randomly assigned to receive either glargine/glulisine or premixed insulin analogues and continued treatment following the centers' usual practice. HbA(1c), weight, insulin dose, concomitant oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) usage, and hypoglycemia were evaluated at baseline and 3, 6, and 9 months. Medication costs, including costs for all insulin or OAD regimens, were estimated using published wholesale acquisition costs. RESULTS: A total of 197 patients were randomized to receive glargine/glulisine therapy (n = 106) or premixed analogue therapy (n = 91). Overall, the mean age was 56 years, the mean duration of diabetes was 13 years, with a mean HbA(1c) of 9.25% and mean BMI of 35.8 kg/m(2) at baseline. Patients randomized to receive glargine/glulisine had a greater mean HbA(1c) reduction from baseline (-2.3%) than patients receiving a premixed analogue regimen (-1.7%). Adjusted mean follow-up HbA(1c) was 6.9% versus 7.5%, respectively (difference, -0.59%; P < 0.01). The glargine/glulisine group also used a lower mean number of OADs (0.86 vs 1.14; difference, -0.28; P = 0.04) but had a higher weight (240 vs 235 lb; difference, 4.55 lb; P = 0.03) than the premixed analogue group at follow-up. There were no significant differences in daily insulin dose and rates of hypoglycemia. Overall medication costs per 1.0% reduction in HbA(1c) were $841 with glargine/glulisine and $1308 with premixed analogues. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, treatment with glargine/glulisine provided greater improvement in glycemic control and may represent a more cost-effective treatment option than premixed regimens for patients with type 2 diabetes in real-world clinical practice. However, due to the pragmatic trial design, the study concluded before follow-up assessments were available for all randomized patients. SN - 1879-114X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21719107/Glycemic_control_with_insulin_glargine_plus_insulin_glulisine_versus_premixed_insulin_analogues_in_real_world_practices:_a_cost_effectiveness_study_with_a_randomized_pragmatic_trial_design_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0149-2918(11)00392-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -