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The individual and combined effects of glycemic index and protein on glycemic response, hunger, and energy intake.

Abstract

Although high protein and low glycemic index (GI) foods are thought to promote satiety, little is known about the effects of GI, protein, and their interaction on hunger and energy intake several hours following a mixed meal. This study investigated the long term effects of GI, protein, and their combined effects on glucose, insulin, hunger, and energy intake in healthy, sedentary, overweight, and obese adults (BMI of 30.9 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)). Sixteen individuals participated separately in four testing sessions after an overnight fast. The majority (75%) were non-Hispanic Blacks. Each consumed one of four breakfast meals (high GI/low protein, high GI/high protein, low GI/low protein, low GI/high protein) in random order. Visual analog scales (VAS) and blood samples were taken at baseline, 15 min, and at 30 min intervals over 4 h following the meal. After 4 h, participants were given the opportunity to consume food ad libitum from a buffet style lunch. Meals containing low GI foods produced a smaller glucose (P < 0.002) and insulin (P = 0.0001) response than meals containing high GI foods. No main effects for protein or interactions between GI and protein were observed in glucose or insulin responses, respectively. The four meals had no differential effect on observed energy intake or self-reported hunger, satiety, and prospective energy intake. Low GI meals produced the smallest postprandial increases in glucose and insulin. There were no effects for GI, protein, or their interaction on appetite or energy intake 4 h after breakfast.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

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    Center for Obesity Research and Education, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

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    Source

    Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 19:12 2011 Dec pg 2365-73

    MeSH

    Adult
    African Americans
    Appetite
    Blood Glucose
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Proteins
    Energy Intake
    Female
    Glycemic Index
    Humans
    Hunger
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Obesity
    Postprandial Period
    Prospective Studies
    Satiety Response

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21720421

    Citation

    Makris, Angela P., et al. "The Individual and Combined Effects of Glycemic Index and Protein On Glycemic Response, Hunger, and Energy Intake." Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), vol. 19, no. 12, 2011, pp. 2365-73.
    Makris AP, Borradaile KE, Oliver TL, et al. The individual and combined effects of glycemic index and protein on glycemic response, hunger, and energy intake. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19(12):2365-73.
    Makris, A. P., Borradaile, K. E., Oliver, T. L., Cassim, N. G., Rosenbaum, D. L., Boden, G. H., ... Foster, G. D. (2011). The individual and combined effects of glycemic index and protein on glycemic response, hunger, and energy intake. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 19(12), pp. 2365-73. doi:10.1038/oby.2011.145.
    Makris AP, et al. The Individual and Combined Effects of Glycemic Index and Protein On Glycemic Response, Hunger, and Energy Intake. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19(12):2365-73. PubMed PMID: 21720421.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The individual and combined effects of glycemic index and protein on glycemic response, hunger, and energy intake. AU - Makris,Angela P, AU - Borradaile,Kelley E, AU - Oliver,Tracy L, AU - Cassim,Nida G, AU - Rosenbaum,Diane L, AU - Boden,Guenther H, AU - Homko,Carol J, AU - Foster,Gary D, Y1 - 2011/06/30/ PY - 2011/7/2/entrez PY - 2011/7/2/pubmed PY - 2012/5/10/medline SP - 2365 EP - 73 JF - Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) JO - Obesity (Silver Spring) VL - 19 IS - 12 N2 - Although high protein and low glycemic index (GI) foods are thought to promote satiety, little is known about the effects of GI, protein, and their interaction on hunger and energy intake several hours following a mixed meal. This study investigated the long term effects of GI, protein, and their combined effects on glucose, insulin, hunger, and energy intake in healthy, sedentary, overweight, and obese adults (BMI of 30.9 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)). Sixteen individuals participated separately in four testing sessions after an overnight fast. The majority (75%) were non-Hispanic Blacks. Each consumed one of four breakfast meals (high GI/low protein, high GI/high protein, low GI/low protein, low GI/high protein) in random order. Visual analog scales (VAS) and blood samples were taken at baseline, 15 min, and at 30 min intervals over 4 h following the meal. After 4 h, participants were given the opportunity to consume food ad libitum from a buffet style lunch. Meals containing low GI foods produced a smaller glucose (P < 0.002) and insulin (P = 0.0001) response than meals containing high GI foods. No main effects for protein or interactions between GI and protein were observed in glucose or insulin responses, respectively. The four meals had no differential effect on observed energy intake or self-reported hunger, satiety, and prospective energy intake. Low GI meals produced the smallest postprandial increases in glucose and insulin. There were no effects for GI, protein, or their interaction on appetite or energy intake 4 h after breakfast. SN - 1930-739X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21720421/The_individual_and_combined_effects_of_glycemic_index_and_protein_on_glycemic_response_hunger_and_energy_intake_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2011.145 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -