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Acrylamide formation in almonds (Prunus dulcis): influences of roasting time and temperature, precursors, varietal selection, and storage.
J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Aug 10; 59(15):8225-32.JA

Abstract

Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that is found in many roasted and baked foods. This paper describes two sensitive and reliable LC-(ESI)MS/MS methods for the analysis of (1) acrylamide and (2) common acrylamide precursors (i.e., glucose, fructose, asparagine, and glutamine) in raw and roasted almonds. These methods were used to evaluate the impact of roasting temperatures (between 129 and 182 °C) and times on acrylamide formation. Controlling the roasting temperature at or below 146 °C resulted in acrylamide levels below 200 ppb at all roasting times evaluated. Six varieties of almonds collected in various regions of California over two harvest years and roasted at 138 °C for 22 min had acrylamide levels ranging from 117 ± 5 μg/kg (Sonora) to 221 ± 95 μg/kg (Butte) with an average of 187 ± 71 μg/kg. A weak correlation between asparagine content in raw almonds and acrylamide formation was observed (R(2) = 0.6787). No statistical relationship was found between acrylamide formation and almond variety, orchard region, or harvest year. Stability studies on roasted almonds indicated that acrylamide levels decreased by 12.9-68.5% (average of 50.2%) after 3 days of storage at 60 °C. Short-term elevated temperature storage may be another approach for mitigating acrylamide levels in roasted almonds.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, United States.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Evaluation Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21721575

Citation

Zhang, Gong, et al. "Acrylamide Formation in Almonds (Prunus Dulcis): Influences of Roasting Time and Temperature, Precursors, Varietal Selection, and Storage." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 59, no. 15, 2011, pp. 8225-32.
Zhang G, Huang G, Xiao L, et al. Acrylamide formation in almonds (Prunus dulcis): influences of roasting time and temperature, precursors, varietal selection, and storage. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59(15):8225-32.
Zhang, G., Huang, G., Xiao, L., Seiber, J., & Mitchell, A. E. (2011). Acrylamide formation in almonds (Prunus dulcis): influences of roasting time and temperature, precursors, varietal selection, and storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(15), 8225-32. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf201595q
Zhang G, et al. Acrylamide Formation in Almonds (Prunus Dulcis): Influences of Roasting Time and Temperature, Precursors, Varietal Selection, and Storage. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Aug 10;59(15):8225-32. PubMed PMID: 21721575.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Acrylamide formation in almonds (Prunus dulcis): influences of roasting time and temperature, precursors, varietal selection, and storage. AU - Zhang,Gong, AU - Huang,Guangwei, AU - Xiao,Lu, AU - Seiber,James, AU - Mitchell,Alyson E, Y1 - 2011/07/12/ PY - 2011/7/5/entrez PY - 2011/7/5/pubmed PY - 2011/12/13/medline SP - 8225 EP - 32 JF - Journal of agricultural and food chemistry JO - J Agric Food Chem VL - 59 IS - 15 N2 - Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that is found in many roasted and baked foods. This paper describes two sensitive and reliable LC-(ESI)MS/MS methods for the analysis of (1) acrylamide and (2) common acrylamide precursors (i.e., glucose, fructose, asparagine, and glutamine) in raw and roasted almonds. These methods were used to evaluate the impact of roasting temperatures (between 129 and 182 °C) and times on acrylamide formation. Controlling the roasting temperature at or below 146 °C resulted in acrylamide levels below 200 ppb at all roasting times evaluated. Six varieties of almonds collected in various regions of California over two harvest years and roasted at 138 °C for 22 min had acrylamide levels ranging from 117 ± 5 μg/kg (Sonora) to 221 ± 95 μg/kg (Butte) with an average of 187 ± 71 μg/kg. A weak correlation between asparagine content in raw almonds and acrylamide formation was observed (R(2) = 0.6787). No statistical relationship was found between acrylamide formation and almond variety, orchard region, or harvest year. Stability studies on roasted almonds indicated that acrylamide levels decreased by 12.9-68.5% (average of 50.2%) after 3 days of storage at 60 °C. Short-term elevated temperature storage may be another approach for mitigating acrylamide levels in roasted almonds. SN - 1520-5118 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21721575/Acrylamide_formation_in_almonds__Prunus_dulcis_:_influences_of_roasting_time_and_temperature_precursors_varietal_selection_and_storage_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1021/jf201595q DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -