Immune responses to combined effect of hypoxia and high temperature in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.Mar Pollut Bull. 2011; 63(5-12):201-8.MP
Flow cytometry was used to examine immune responses in haemocytes of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis under six combinations of oxygen level (1.5 mg O2 l(-1), 6.0 mg O2 l(-1)) and temperature (20 °C, 25 °C and 30 °C) at 24 h, 48 h, 96 h and 168 h. The mussels were then transferred to normoxic condition (6.0 mg O2 l(-1)) at 20 °C for further 24 h to study their recovery from the combined hypoxic and temperature stress. Esterase (Est), reactive oxygen species (ROS), lysosome content (Lyso) and phagocytosis (Pha) were reduced at high temperatures, whereas hypoxia resulted in higher haemocyte mortality (HM) and reduced phagocytosis. For HM and Pha, changes were observed after being exposed to the stresses for 96 h, whereas only a 24 h period was required for ROS and Lyso, and a 48 h one for Est. Recovery from the stresses was observed for HM and Pha but not other immune responses.