Chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl2 to Folsomia candida (Collembola) in relation to bioavailability in soil.Environ Pollut. 2011 Oct; 159(10):2713-9.EP
The chronic toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) to Folsomia candida was determined in natural soil. To unravel the contribution of particle size and free zinc to NP toxicity, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl(2) were also tested. Zinc concentrations in pore water increased with increasing soil concentrations, with Freundlich sorption constants K(f) of 61.7, 106 and 96.4 l/kg (n = 1.50, 1.34 and 0.42) for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl(2) respectively. Survival of F. candida was not affected by ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO at concentrations up to 6400 mg Zn/kg d.w. Reproduction was dose-dependently reduced with 28-d EC50s of 1964, 1591 and 298 mg Zn/kg d.w. for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl(2), respectively. The difference in EC50s based on measured pore water concentrations was small (7.94-16.8 mg Zn/l). We conclude that zinc ions released from NP determine the observed toxic effects rather than ZnO particle size.