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Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Abstract

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. Symptoms of ADHD include hyperactivity, low frustration tolerance, impulsivity, and inattention. While the biological pathways leading to ADHD are not clearly delineated, a number of genetic and environmental risk factors for the disorder are recognized. In the early 1970s, research conducted by Dr. Benjamin Feingold found that when hyperactive children were given a diet free of artificial food additives and dyes, symptoms of hyperactivity were reduced. While some clinical studies supported these findings, more rigorous empirical studies conducted over the next 20 years were less positive. As a result, research on the role of food additives in contributing to ADHD waned. In recent years, however, interest in this area has revived. In response to more recent research and public petitions, in December 2009 the British government requested that food manufacturers remove most artificial food dyes from their products. While these strictures could have positive effects on behavior, the removal of food dyes is not a panacea for ADHD, which is a multifaceted disorder with both biological and environmental underpinnings.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA. robin.kanarek@tufts.edu

    Source

    Nutrition reviews 69:7 2011 Jul pg 385-91

    MeSH

    Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
    Child
    Diet
    Food Coloring Agents
    Humans

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21729092

    Citation

    Kanarek, Robin B.. "Artificial Food Dyes and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder." Nutrition Reviews, vol. 69, no. 7, 2011, pp. 385-91.
    Kanarek RB. Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutr Rev. 2011;69(7):385-91.
    Kanarek, R. B. (2011). Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutrition Reviews, 69(7), pp. 385-91. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00385.x.
    Kanarek RB. Artificial Food Dyes and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Nutr Rev. 2011;69(7):385-91. PubMed PMID: 21729092.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A1 - Kanarek,Robin B, Y1 - 2011/06/30/ PY - 2011/7/7/entrez PY - 2011/7/7/pubmed PY - 2011/10/28/medline SP - 385 EP - 91 JF - Nutrition reviews JO - Nutr. Rev. VL - 69 IS - 7 N2 - Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. Symptoms of ADHD include hyperactivity, low frustration tolerance, impulsivity, and inattention. While the biological pathways leading to ADHD are not clearly delineated, a number of genetic and environmental risk factors for the disorder are recognized. In the early 1970s, research conducted by Dr. Benjamin Feingold found that when hyperactive children were given a diet free of artificial food additives and dyes, symptoms of hyperactivity were reduced. While some clinical studies supported these findings, more rigorous empirical studies conducted over the next 20 years were less positive. As a result, research on the role of food additives in contributing to ADHD waned. In recent years, however, interest in this area has revived. In response to more recent research and public petitions, in December 2009 the British government requested that food manufacturers remove most artificial food dyes from their products. While these strictures could have positive effects on behavior, the removal of food dyes is not a panacea for ADHD, which is a multifaceted disorder with both biological and environmental underpinnings. SN - 1753-4887 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21729092/Artificial_food_dyes_and_attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/nutritionreviews/article-lookup/doi/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00385.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -