[Capillary beta-hydroxybutyrate determination for monitoring diabetic ketoacidosis].Endocrinol Nutr 2011 Aug-Sep; 58(7):347-52EN
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the most severe acute metabolic complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin treatment is commonly guided by plasma glucose levels and changes in venous blood gases, while β-hydroxibutyrate (BHB) levels are rarely measured. The study objective was to evaluate the value of capillary BHB monitoring in the course and resolution of DKA.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Thirty patients with type 1 diabetes admitted for DKA were enrolled. A standard protocol including monitoring of blood glucose, venous blood gases, semiquantitative ketonuria, and capillary BHB was used. Patients were divided into three groups by time to DKA resolution (group 1:<24 h, group 2: 24-48 h, group 3: >48 h), and BHB results were compared to all other biochemical measurements.
Mean laboratory results upon admission were: blood glucose 415 (standard deviation [SD] 106) mg/dL; bicarbonate 9.6 (SD 1.5) mmol/L; pH 7.13 (SD 0.04); BHB 4.33 (SD 0.48) mmol/L, and ketonuria 3+ in 22 patients and 4+ in 6. BHB correlated well with bicarbonate (r=-0.24139; P=0.0161) and pH (r=-0.56419; P<0.0001). BHB normalized earlier than ketonuria in all cases (group 1: 15.5 vs 18.8 hours P<0.05; group 2: 18.2 vs 23.5 hours P<0.01; group 3: 37.3 vs 41.7 hours P<0.01). Ten percent of patients still had ketonuria when blood ketone levels were already normal (<0.5 mmol/L).
BHB measurement is an easy, practical, and reliable monitoring method in DKA and may be used as a parameter to adjust insulin treatment.