A patient with hypophosphatemic rickets and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament caused by a novel homozygous mutation in ENPP1 gene.Bone. 2011 Oct; 49(4):913-6.BONE
X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia (XLH), autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia (ADHR) and autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia (ARHR1 or ARHR2) are hereditary fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-related hypophosphatemic rickets showing similar clinical features. We here show a patient with hypophosphatemic rickets and widespread ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). The proband is a 62-year-old female. Her parents are first cousins and showed no signs of rickets or osteomalacia. She showed hypophosphatemic rickets with elevated FGF23 level and had been clinically considered to be suffering from XLH. However, direct sequencing of all coding exons and exon-intron junctions of phosphate regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome (PHEX), FGF23 and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) genes, responsible genes for XLH, ADHR and ARHR1, respectively, showed no mutation. A novel homozygous splice donor site mutation was found at the exon-intron junction of exon 21 of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) gene responsible for ARHR2 (IVS21+1_3(GTA>CACC)). Subsequent analysis of mRNA revealed that this mutation caused skipping of exon 21 which created a premature stop codon in exon 22. These results indicate that genetic analysis is mandatory for the correct diagnosis of hereditary FGF23-related hypophosphatemic rickets. Because Enpp1 knockout mouse is a model of OPLL, this case also suggests that OPLL is associated with ARHR2.