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The role of diet in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an important preventable disease and a growing public health problem. Epidemiologic and interventional studies suggest that weight loss is the main driving force to reduce diabetes risk. Landmark clinical trials of lifestyle changes in subjects with prediabetes have shown that diet and exercise leading to weight loss consistently reduce the incidence of diabetes. However, from these studies it cannot be established whether dietary changes alone play a significant role in preventing diabetes. Here we review epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence relating nutrients, foods and dietary patterns to diabetes risk and the possible mechanisms involved. The differential effects of carbohydrate and fat quantity and quality, and those of specific foods and whole diets are discussed. Importantly, most dietary components influencing diabetes risk have similar effects on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and inflammation. The conclusion is that there is no universal dietary strategy to prevent diabetes or delay its onset. Together with the maintenance of ideal body weight, the promotion of the so-called prudent diet (characterized by a higher intake of food groups that are generally recommended for health promotion, particularly plant-based foods, and a lower intake of red meat, meat products, sweets, high-fat dairy and refined grains) or a Mediterranean dietary pattern rich in olive oil, fruits and vegetables, including whole grains, pulses and nuts, low-fat dairy, and moderate alcohol consumption (mainly red wine) appears as the best strategy to decrease diabetes risk, especially if dietary recommendations take into account individual preferences, thus enabling long-time adherence.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Human Nutrition Unit, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan de Reus, Biochemistry and Biotechnology Department, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain. jordi.salas@urv.cat

    , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Biomarkers
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
    Diet
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Fats
    Energy Intake
    Feeding Behavior
    Food Preferences
    Humans
    Life Style
    Meta-Analysis as Topic
    Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
    Risk Factors
    Weight Loss

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21745730

    Citation

    Salas-Salvadó, J, et al. "The Role of Diet in the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes." Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, vol. 21 Suppl 2, 2011, pp. B32-48.
    Salas-Salvadó J, Martinez-González MÁ, Bulló M, et al. The role of diet in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21 Suppl 2:B32-48.
    Salas-Salvadó, J., Martinez-González, M. Á., Bulló, M., & Ros, E. (2011). The role of diet in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, 21 Suppl 2, pp. B32-48. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2011.03.009.
    Salas-Salvadó J, et al. The Role of Diet in the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21 Suppl 2:B32-48. PubMed PMID: 21745730.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The role of diet in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. AU - Salas-Salvadó,J, AU - Martinez-González,M Á, AU - Bulló,M, AU - Ros,E, Y1 - 2011/07/13/ PY - 2010/11/22/received PY - 2011/03/24/revised PY - 2011/03/28/accepted PY - 2011/7/13/entrez PY - 2011/7/13/pubmed PY - 2012/1/10/medline SP - B32 EP - 48 JF - Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD JO - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis VL - 21 Suppl 2 N2 - Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an important preventable disease and a growing public health problem. Epidemiologic and interventional studies suggest that weight loss is the main driving force to reduce diabetes risk. Landmark clinical trials of lifestyle changes in subjects with prediabetes have shown that diet and exercise leading to weight loss consistently reduce the incidence of diabetes. However, from these studies it cannot be established whether dietary changes alone play a significant role in preventing diabetes. Here we review epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence relating nutrients, foods and dietary patterns to diabetes risk and the possible mechanisms involved. The differential effects of carbohydrate and fat quantity and quality, and those of specific foods and whole diets are discussed. Importantly, most dietary components influencing diabetes risk have similar effects on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and inflammation. The conclusion is that there is no universal dietary strategy to prevent diabetes or delay its onset. Together with the maintenance of ideal body weight, the promotion of the so-called prudent diet (characterized by a higher intake of food groups that are generally recommended for health promotion, particularly plant-based foods, and a lower intake of red meat, meat products, sweets, high-fat dairy and refined grains) or a Mediterranean dietary pattern rich in olive oil, fruits and vegetables, including whole grains, pulses and nuts, low-fat dairy, and moderate alcohol consumption (mainly red wine) appears as the best strategy to decrease diabetes risk, especially if dietary recommendations take into account individual preferences, thus enabling long-time adherence. SN - 1590-3729 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21745730/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0939-4753(11)00089-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -