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Dopaminergic, serotonergic, and oxytonergic candidate genes associated with infant attachment security and disorganization? In search of main and interaction effects.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011 Dec; 52(12):1295-307.JC

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND METHODS

In two birth cohort studies with genetic, sensitive parenting, and attachment data of more than 1,000 infants in total, we tested main and interaction effects of candidate genes involved in the dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin systems (DRD4, DRD2, COMT, 5-HTT, OXTR) on attachment security and disorganization. Parenting was assessed using observational rating scales for parental sensitivity (Ainsworth, Bell, & Stayton, 1974), and infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure.

RESULTS

We found no consistent additive genetic associations for attachment security and attachment disorganization. However, specific tests revealed evidence for a codominant risk model for COMT Val158Met, consistent across both samples. Children with the Val/Met genotype showed higher disorganization scores (combined effect size d = .22, CI = .10-.34, p < .001). Gene-by-environment interaction effects were not replicable across the two samples.

CONCLUSIONS

This unexpected finding might be explained by a broader range of plasticity in heterozygotes, which may increase susceptibility to environmental influences or to dysregulation of emotional arousal. This study is unique in combining the two largest attachment cohorts with molecular genetic and observed rearing environment data to date.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Child and Family Studies, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21749372

Citation

Luijk, Maartje P C M., et al. "Dopaminergic, Serotonergic, and Oxytonergic Candidate Genes Associated With Infant Attachment Security and Disorganization? in Search of Main and Interaction Effects." Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, vol. 52, no. 12, 2011, pp. 1295-307.
Luijk MP, Roisman GI, Haltigan JD, et al. Dopaminergic, serotonergic, and oxytonergic candidate genes associated with infant attachment security and disorganization? In search of main and interaction effects. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011;52(12):1295-307.
Luijk, M. P., Roisman, G. I., Haltigan, J. D., Tiemeier, H., Booth-Laforce, C., van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Belsky, J., Uitterlinden, A. G., Jaddoe, V. W., Hofman, A., Verhulst, F. C., Tharner, A., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2011). Dopaminergic, serotonergic, and oxytonergic candidate genes associated with infant attachment security and disorganization? In search of main and interaction effects. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 52(12), 1295-307. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02440.x
Luijk MP, et al. Dopaminergic, Serotonergic, and Oxytonergic Candidate Genes Associated With Infant Attachment Security and Disorganization? in Search of Main and Interaction Effects. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011;52(12):1295-307. PubMed PMID: 21749372.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dopaminergic, serotonergic, and oxytonergic candidate genes associated with infant attachment security and disorganization? In search of main and interaction effects. AU - Luijk,Maartje P C M, AU - Roisman,Glenn I, AU - Haltigan,John D, AU - Tiemeier,Henning, AU - Booth-Laforce,Cathryn, AU - van Ijzendoorn,Marinus H, AU - Belsky,Jay, AU - Uitterlinden,Andre G, AU - Jaddoe,Vincent W V, AU - Hofman,Albert, AU - Verhulst,Frank C, AU - Tharner,Anne, AU - Bakermans-Kranenburg,Marian J, Y1 - 2011/07/13/ PY - 2011/7/14/entrez PY - 2011/7/14/pubmed PY - 2012/2/24/medline SP - 1295 EP - 307 JF - Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines JO - J Child Psychol Psychiatry VL - 52 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND AND METHODS: In two birth cohort studies with genetic, sensitive parenting, and attachment data of more than 1,000 infants in total, we tested main and interaction effects of candidate genes involved in the dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin systems (DRD4, DRD2, COMT, 5-HTT, OXTR) on attachment security and disorganization. Parenting was assessed using observational rating scales for parental sensitivity (Ainsworth, Bell, & Stayton, 1974), and infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure. RESULTS: We found no consistent additive genetic associations for attachment security and attachment disorganization. However, specific tests revealed evidence for a codominant risk model for COMT Val158Met, consistent across both samples. Children with the Val/Met genotype showed higher disorganization scores (combined effect size d = .22, CI = .10-.34, p < .001). Gene-by-environment interaction effects were not replicable across the two samples. CONCLUSIONS: This unexpected finding might be explained by a broader range of plasticity in heterozygotes, which may increase susceptibility to environmental influences or to dysregulation of emotional arousal. This study is unique in combining the two largest attachment cohorts with molecular genetic and observed rearing environment data to date. SN - 1469-7610 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21749372/Dopaminergic_serotonergic_and_oxytonergic_candidate_genes_associated_with_infant_attachment_security_and_disorganization_In_search_of_main_and_interaction_effects_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02440.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -