Is the plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level associated with body weight and metabolic, and hormonal disturbances in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome?Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011 Oct; 158(2):254-9.EJ
The aim of the study was to analyze interrelation between AMH levels and body weight, metabolic, and hormonal status in normal and overweight weight women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Eighty-seven women (54 normal weight and 33 overweight) diagnosed with PCOS and 50 apparently healthy women - Non-PCOS (28 normal weight and 22 overweight) were enrolled. The body weight and height were measured and BMI was calculated. In addition to serum glucose, lipids, androgens, FSH, LH, SHBG and insulin, AMH were assessed in fasting state and free androgens index (FAI) was calculated. The insulin resistance was assessed based on the homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).
Plasma AMH levels were similar in normal weight and overweight PCOS groups (9.6±3.5 vs. 11.2±4.5ng/mL, respectively), and as expected markedly higher than in both Non-PCOS groups (2.5±0.8 and 2.3±0.7ng/mL, respectively). There were no correlations between BMI and AMH levels in all study groups. A significant positive correlation between HOMA-IR, free testosterone concentrations or FAI and AMH levels were found (R=0.31, p<0.001; R=0.91, p<0.001 and R=0.62, p<0.001, respectively). Moreover, there was positive correlation between total or LDL cholesterol and AMH levels (R=0.22, p<0.05 and R=0.31, p<0.05, respectively) and a negative one between HDL cholesterol and AMH levels (R=-0.17, p<0.05) in all study subjects.
The plasma AMH level is associated with insulin resistance but not with BMI per se. Increased circulating AMH level seems to reflect the disturbances of gonadotrophins release in PCOS. It seems that AMH level may be used not only as new surrogate marker of ovarian hyperandrogenism in PCOS but also as a potential new cardiovascular risk factor.