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Proposal for a kava quality standardization code.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Oct; 49(10):2503-16.FC

Abstract

Rare cases of hepatotoxicity emerged with the use of kava drugs and dietary supplements prepared from rhizomes and roots of the South Pacific plant kava (Piper methysticum). Their psychoactive, anxiolytic, relaxing, and recreational ingredients are the kavalactones kavain, dihydrokavain, methysticin, dihydromethysticin, yangonin, and desmethoxyyangonin, but there is little evidence that these kavalactones or the non-kavalactones pipermethystine and flavokavain B are the culprits of the adverse hepatic reactions. It rather appears that poor quality of the kava material was responsible for the liver toxicity. Analysis of existing kava quality standardizations with focus on chemical, agricultural, manufacturing, nutritional, regulatory, and legislation backgrounds showed major shortcomings that could easily explain quality problems. We therefore suggest a uniform, internationally accepted device for kava quality standardizations that are in the interest of the consumers because of safety reasons and will meet the expectations of kava farmers, pharmaceutical manufacturers, regulators of agencies, and legislators. The initial step resides in the establishment of Pan-Pacific kava quality legislation as an important part of the proposed Kava Quality Standardization Code. In conclusion, a sophisticated approach to establish kava quality standardizations is needed for safe human use of kava as relaxing traditional beverages, the anxiolytic drugs, and recreational dietary supplements.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Klinikum Hanau, Teaching Hospital of the Goethe University of Frankfurt/Main, Germany. rolf.teschke@gmx.deNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21756963

Citation

Teschke, Rolf, and Vincent Lebot. "Proposal for a Kava Quality Standardization Code." Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, vol. 49, no. 10, 2011, pp. 2503-16.
Teschke R, Lebot V. Proposal for a kava quality standardization code. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49(10):2503-16.
Teschke, R., & Lebot, V. (2011). Proposal for a kava quality standardization code. Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, 49(10), 2503-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.06.075
Teschke R, Lebot V. Proposal for a Kava Quality Standardization Code. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49(10):2503-16. PubMed PMID: 21756963.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Proposal for a kava quality standardization code. AU - Teschke,Rolf, AU - Lebot,Vincent, Y1 - 2011/07/03/ PY - 2011/04/09/received PY - 2011/06/19/revised PY - 2011/06/27/accepted PY - 2011/7/16/entrez PY - 2011/7/16/pubmed PY - 2012/2/23/medline SP - 2503 EP - 16 JF - Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association JO - Food Chem Toxicol VL - 49 IS - 10 N2 - Rare cases of hepatotoxicity emerged with the use of kava drugs and dietary supplements prepared from rhizomes and roots of the South Pacific plant kava (Piper methysticum). Their psychoactive, anxiolytic, relaxing, and recreational ingredients are the kavalactones kavain, dihydrokavain, methysticin, dihydromethysticin, yangonin, and desmethoxyyangonin, but there is little evidence that these kavalactones or the non-kavalactones pipermethystine and flavokavain B are the culprits of the adverse hepatic reactions. It rather appears that poor quality of the kava material was responsible for the liver toxicity. Analysis of existing kava quality standardizations with focus on chemical, agricultural, manufacturing, nutritional, regulatory, and legislation backgrounds showed major shortcomings that could easily explain quality problems. We therefore suggest a uniform, internationally accepted device for kava quality standardizations that are in the interest of the consumers because of safety reasons and will meet the expectations of kava farmers, pharmaceutical manufacturers, regulators of agencies, and legislators. The initial step resides in the establishment of Pan-Pacific kava quality legislation as an important part of the proposed Kava Quality Standardization Code. In conclusion, a sophisticated approach to establish kava quality standardizations is needed for safe human use of kava as relaxing traditional beverages, the anxiolytic drugs, and recreational dietary supplements. SN - 1873-6351 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21756963/Proposal_for_a_kava_quality_standardization_code_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0278-6915(11)00319-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -