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Mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering properties of soluble dietary fibre polysaccharides.

Abstract

A number of studies have shown a positive relationship between diets rich in soluble dietary fibres (SDF) such as β-glucan, pectin, guar gum and psyllium, and reduced serum cholesterol and thus a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Three major biological mechanisms have been proposed to explain the cholesterol-reducing effects of SDF: prevention of bile salt (BS) re-absorption from the small intestine leading to an excess faecal BS excretion; reduced glycemic response leading to lower insulin stimulation of hepatic cholesterol synthesis; and physiological effects of fermentation products of SDF, mainly propionate. Evidence for the latter mechanism is inconclusive, whereas in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro experiments suggest that BS micelles "bind" to SDF preventing their re-absorption. Whereas, glycemic responses to SDF have been studied extensively, the nature of interactions between bile salt micelles and SDF that lead to incomplete BS re-absorption are poorly defined. Three potential physicochemical mechanisms are proposed together with suggestions for in vitro experiments to test them.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Centre for Nutrition and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Hartley Teakle Building, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.

    Source

    Food & function 1:2 2010 Nov pg 149-55

    MeSH

    Anticholesteremic Agents
    Bile Acids and Salts
    Dietary Fiber
    Female
    Humans
    Intestinal Absorption
    Male
    Polysaccharides
    Solubility

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21776465

    Citation

    Gunness, Purnima, and Michael John Gidley. "Mechanisms Underlying the Cholesterol-lowering Properties of Soluble Dietary Fibre Polysaccharides." Food & Function, vol. 1, no. 2, 2010, pp. 149-55.
    Gunness P, Gidley MJ. Mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering properties of soluble dietary fibre polysaccharides. Food Funct. 2010;1(2):149-55.
    Gunness, P., & Gidley, M. J. (2010). Mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering properties of soluble dietary fibre polysaccharides. Food & Function, 1(2), pp. 149-55. doi:10.1039/c0fo00080a.
    Gunness P, Gidley MJ. Mechanisms Underlying the Cholesterol-lowering Properties of Soluble Dietary Fibre Polysaccharides. Food Funct. 2010;1(2):149-55. PubMed PMID: 21776465.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering properties of soluble dietary fibre polysaccharides. AU - Gunness,Purnima, AU - Gidley,Michael John, Y1 - 2010/09/30/ PY - 2011/7/22/entrez PY - 2011/7/22/pubmed PY - 2012/1/17/medline SP - 149 EP - 55 JF - Food & function JO - Food Funct VL - 1 IS - 2 N2 - A number of studies have shown a positive relationship between diets rich in soluble dietary fibres (SDF) such as β-glucan, pectin, guar gum and psyllium, and reduced serum cholesterol and thus a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Three major biological mechanisms have been proposed to explain the cholesterol-reducing effects of SDF: prevention of bile salt (BS) re-absorption from the small intestine leading to an excess faecal BS excretion; reduced glycemic response leading to lower insulin stimulation of hepatic cholesterol synthesis; and physiological effects of fermentation products of SDF, mainly propionate. Evidence for the latter mechanism is inconclusive, whereas in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro experiments suggest that BS micelles "bind" to SDF preventing their re-absorption. Whereas, glycemic responses to SDF have been studied extensively, the nature of interactions between bile salt micelles and SDF that lead to incomplete BS re-absorption are poorly defined. Three potential physicochemical mechanisms are proposed together with suggestions for in vitro experiments to test them. SN - 2042-650X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21776465/full_citation L2 - https://doi.org/10.1039/c0fo00080a DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -