Combined surgical and endovascular access of the superficial middle cerebral vein to occlude a high-grade cavernous dural arteriovenous fistula: case report.Neurosurgery. 2011 Aug; 69(2):E475-81; discussion E481-2.N
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE
High-grade cavernous sinus (CS) dural arteriovenous fistulae with cortical venous drainage often have a malignant presentation requiring urgent treatment. In the absence of a venous access to the lesion, transarterial embolization can potentially cure these lesions; however, the high concentration of eloquent arterial territories adjacent to the fistula creates a precarious risk of arterial-arterial reflux. In such cases, a combined surgical and endovascular approach may provide the least invasive option.
We describe a patient presenting with a venous hemorrhagic infarct caused by a high-grade CS dural arteriovenous fistula (Barrow type D caroticocavernous fistula) with isolated drainage via the superficial middle cerebral vein into engorged perisylvian cortical veins. No transfemoral or ophthalmic strategy was angiographically apparent, and the posterior location of the involved CS compartment mitigated a direct puncture. The patient underwent direct puncture of the superficial middle cerebral vein via an orbitozygomatic craniotomy and the CS was catheterized under fluoroscopic guidance. The CS was coil-embolized back into the distal superficial middle cerebral vein with complete obliteration of the fistula. The patient did well with no new deficits and made an uneventful recovery.
This novel combined open surgical and endovascular approach enables obliteration of a CS dural arteriovenous fistula with isolated cortical venous drainage and avoids the additional manipulation with direct dissection and puncture of the CS itself.