Factors associated with low drinking water intake among adolescents: the Florida Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey, 2007.J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Aug; 111(8):1211-7.JA
There is limited information on which characteristics are associated with water intake among adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined the association between demographic, dietary, and behavioral factors and low water intake as the outcome measure. Analyses were based on the 2007 Florida Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey using a representative sample of 4,292 students in grades six through eight in 86 Florida public middle schools. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for factors associated with low water intake (<3 glasses water per day). About 64% of students had low water intake. Factors significantly associated with low water intake were Hispanic ethnicity and non-Hispanic other (vs non-Hispanic white; ORs 0.79 and 0.76, respectively), drinking no 100% juice, drinking it <1 time/day, and drinking it 1 to 2 times/day (vs drinking it ≥3 times/day; ORs 1.83, 1.91, and 1.32, respectively), drinking no milk and drinking <2 glasses of milk/day (vs drinking ≥2 glasses/day; ORs 1.42 and 1.41, respectively), drinking <1 soda/day (vs drinking none; OR 1.40), drinking fruit-flavored drinks/sports drinks <1 time/day and drinking it ≥1 time/day (vs drinking none; ORs 1.49 and 1.41, respectively), eating at a fast-food restaurant ≥3 days/week (vs none; OR 1.38, respectively), not participating on team sports or participating on 1 to 2 team sports in previous 12 months (vs participating on ≥3 teams; ORs 1.77 and 1.24, respectively), and consuming snack/soda while watching television/movies "sometimes" and "most/every time" (vs never; ORs 1.65 and 2.20, respectively). The strongest factor associated with low water intake was frequent consumption of snacks/sodas while watching television/movies. Although study findings should be corroborated in other states and in a nationally representative sample, they may be useful in targeting adolescents for increased water consumption.