Optimisation of solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based methodology to establish the global volatile signature in pulp and skin of Vitis vinifera L. grape varieties.Talanta. 2011 Sep 15; 85(3):1483-93.T
The volatiles (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) responsible for aroma are mainly present in skin of grape varieties. Thus, the present investigation is directed towards the optimisation of a solvent free methodology based on headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) in order to establish the global volatile composition in pulp and skin of Bual and Bastardo Vitis vinifera L. varieties. A deep study on the extraction-influencing parameters was performed, and the best results, expressed as GC peak area, number of identified compounds and reproducibility, were obtained using 4 g of sample homogenised in 5 mL of ultra-pure Milli-Q water in a 20 mL glass vial with addition of 2g of sodium chloride (NaCl). A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibre was selected for extraction at 60°C for 45 min under continuous stirring at 800 rpm. More than 100 VOCs and SVOCs, including 27 monoterpenoids, 27 sesquiterpenoids, 21 carbonyl compounds, 17 alcohols (from which 2 aromatics), 10 C(13) norisoprenoids and 5 acids were identified. The results showed that, for both grape varieties, the levels and number of volatiles in skin were considerably higher than those observed in pulp. According to the data obtained by principal component analysis (PCA), the establishment of the global volatile signature of grape and the relationship between different part of grapes-pulp and skin, may be an useful tool to winemaker decision to define the vinification procedures that improves the organoleptic characteristics of the corresponding wines and consequently contributed to an economic valorization and consumer acceptance.