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Identification of recent cannabis use: whole-blood and plasma free and glucuronidated cannabinoid pharmacokinetics following controlled smoked cannabis administration.
Clin Chem. 2011 Oct; 57(10):1406-14.CC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most frequently observed illicit drug in investigations of accidents and driving under the influence of drugs. THC-glucuronide has been suggested as a marker of recent cannabis use, but there are no blood data following controlled THC administration to test this hypothesis. Furthermore, there are no studies directly examining whole-blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics, although this matrix is often the only available specimen.

METHODS

Participants (9 men, 1 woman) resided on a closed research unit and smoked one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette ad libitum. We quantified THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), THC-glucuronide and THCCOOH-glucuronide directly in whole blood and plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry within 24 h of collection to obviate stability issues.

RESULTS

Median whole blood (plasma) observed maximum concentrations (C(max)) were 50 (76), 6.4 (10), 41 (67), 1.3 (2.0), 2.4 (3.6), 89 (190), and 0.7 (1.4) μg/L 0.25 h after starting smoking for THC, 11-OH- THC, THCCOOH, CBD, CBN, and THCCOOH-glucuronide, respectively, and 0.5 h for THC-glucuronide. At observed C(max), whole-blood (plasma) detection rates were 60% (80%), 80% (90%), and 50% (80%) for CBD, CBN, and THC-glucuronide, respectively. CBD and CBN were not detectable after 1 h in either matrix (LOQ 1.0 μg/L).

CONCLUSIONS

Human whole-blood cannabinoid data following cannabis smoking will assist whole blood and plasma cannabinoid interpretation, while furthering identification of recent cannabis intake.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Biomedical Research Center, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21836075

Citation

Schwope, David M., et al. "Identification of Recent Cannabis Use: Whole-blood and Plasma Free and Glucuronidated Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics Following Controlled Smoked Cannabis Administration." Clinical Chemistry, vol. 57, no. 10, 2011, pp. 1406-14.
Schwope DM, Karschner EL, Gorelick DA, et al. Identification of recent cannabis use: whole-blood and plasma free and glucuronidated cannabinoid pharmacokinetics following controlled smoked cannabis administration. Clin Chem. 2011;57(10):1406-14.
Schwope, D. M., Karschner, E. L., Gorelick, D. A., & Huestis, M. A. (2011). Identification of recent cannabis use: whole-blood and plasma free and glucuronidated cannabinoid pharmacokinetics following controlled smoked cannabis administration. Clinical Chemistry, 57(10), 1406-14. https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2011.171777
Schwope DM, et al. Identification of Recent Cannabis Use: Whole-blood and Plasma Free and Glucuronidated Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics Following Controlled Smoked Cannabis Administration. Clin Chem. 2011;57(10):1406-14. PubMed PMID: 21836075.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Identification of recent cannabis use: whole-blood and plasma free and glucuronidated cannabinoid pharmacokinetics following controlled smoked cannabis administration. AU - Schwope,David M, AU - Karschner,Erin L, AU - Gorelick,David A, AU - Huestis,Marilyn A, Y1 - 2011/08/11/ PY - 2011/8/13/entrez PY - 2011/8/13/pubmed PY - 2011/12/13/medline SP - 1406 EP - 14 JF - Clinical chemistry JO - Clin Chem VL - 57 IS - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most frequently observed illicit drug in investigations of accidents and driving under the influence of drugs. THC-glucuronide has been suggested as a marker of recent cannabis use, but there are no blood data following controlled THC administration to test this hypothesis. Furthermore, there are no studies directly examining whole-blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics, although this matrix is often the only available specimen. METHODS: Participants (9 men, 1 woman) resided on a closed research unit and smoked one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette ad libitum. We quantified THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), THC-glucuronide and THCCOOH-glucuronide directly in whole blood and plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry within 24 h of collection to obviate stability issues. RESULTS: Median whole blood (plasma) observed maximum concentrations (C(max)) were 50 (76), 6.4 (10), 41 (67), 1.3 (2.0), 2.4 (3.6), 89 (190), and 0.7 (1.4) μg/L 0.25 h after starting smoking for THC, 11-OH- THC, THCCOOH, CBD, CBN, and THCCOOH-glucuronide, respectively, and 0.5 h for THC-glucuronide. At observed C(max), whole-blood (plasma) detection rates were 60% (80%), 80% (90%), and 50% (80%) for CBD, CBN, and THC-glucuronide, respectively. CBD and CBN were not detectable after 1 h in either matrix (LOQ 1.0 μg/L). CONCLUSIONS: Human whole-blood cannabinoid data following cannabis smoking will assist whole blood and plasma cannabinoid interpretation, while furthering identification of recent cannabis intake. SN - 1530-8561 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21836075/Identification_of_recent_cannabis_use:_whole_blood_and_plasma_free_and_glucuronidated_cannabinoid_pharmacokinetics_following_controlled_smoked_cannabis_administration_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/clinchem/article-lookup/doi/10.1373/clinchem.2011.171777 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -