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Risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers in Shanxi Province, China: a case-control study.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Smoking and alcohol consumption explain little of the risk for upper-gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer in China, where over half of all cases in the world occur.

METHODS

We evaluated questionnaire-based risk factors for UGI cancers in a case-control study from Shanxi Province, China, including 600 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs), 599 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCAs), 316 gastric noncardia adenocarcinomas (GNCAs), and 1514 age- and gender-matched controls.

RESULTS

Ever smoking and ever use of any alcohol were not associated with risk of UGI cancer; only modest associations were observed between ESCC risk and highest cumulative smoking exposure, as well as GNCA risk and beer drinking. While several associations were noted for socioeconomic and some dietary variables with one or two UGI cancers, the strongest and most consistent relations for all three individual UGI cancers were observed for consumption of scalding hot foods (risk increased 150-219% for daily vs. never users) and fresh vegetables and fruits (risk decreased 48-70% for vegetables and 46-68% for fruits, respectively, for high vs. low quartiles).

CONCLUSION

This study confirms the minor role of tobacco and alcohol in UGI cancers in this region, and highlights thermal damage as a leading etiologic factor.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Genetic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20852, USA. gaoying@mail.nih.gov

    , , , , ,

    Source

    Cancer epidemiology 35:6 2011 Dec pg e91-9

    MeSH

    Adenocarcinoma
    Aged
    Alcohol Drinking
    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
    Case-Control Studies
    China
    Diet
    Esophageal Neoplasms
    Female
    Hot Temperature
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Risk Factors
    Smoking
    Stomach Neoplasms
    Surveys and Questionnaires

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21846596

    Citation

    Gao, Ying, et al. "Risk Factors for Esophageal and Gastric Cancers in Shanxi Province, China: a Case-control Study." Cancer Epidemiology, vol. 35, no. 6, 2011, pp. e91-9.
    Gao Y, Hu N, Han XY, et al. Risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers in Shanxi Province, China: a case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol. 2011;35(6):e91-9.
    Gao, Y., Hu, N., Han, X. Y., Ding, T., Giffen, C., Goldstein, A. M., & Taylor, P. R. (2011). Risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers in Shanxi Province, China: a case-control study. Cancer Epidemiology, 35(6), pp. e91-9. doi:10.1016/j.canep.2011.06.006.
    Gao Y, et al. Risk Factors for Esophageal and Gastric Cancers in Shanxi Province, China: a Case-control Study. Cancer Epidemiol. 2011;35(6):e91-9. PubMed PMID: 21846596.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers in Shanxi Province, China: a case-control study. AU - Gao,Ying, AU - Hu,Nan, AU - Han,Xiao You, AU - Ding,Ti, AU - Giffen,Carol, AU - Goldstein,Alisa M, AU - Taylor,Philip R, Y1 - 2011/08/16/ PY - 2011/03/20/received PY - 2011/06/23/revised PY - 2011/06/25/accepted PY - 2011/8/18/entrez PY - 2011/8/19/pubmed PY - 2012/3/7/medline SP - e91 EP - 9 JF - Cancer epidemiology JO - Cancer Epidemiol VL - 35 IS - 6 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Smoking and alcohol consumption explain little of the risk for upper-gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer in China, where over half of all cases in the world occur. METHODS: We evaluated questionnaire-based risk factors for UGI cancers in a case-control study from Shanxi Province, China, including 600 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs), 599 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCAs), 316 gastric noncardia adenocarcinomas (GNCAs), and 1514 age- and gender-matched controls. RESULTS: Ever smoking and ever use of any alcohol were not associated with risk of UGI cancer; only modest associations were observed between ESCC risk and highest cumulative smoking exposure, as well as GNCA risk and beer drinking. While several associations were noted for socioeconomic and some dietary variables with one or two UGI cancers, the strongest and most consistent relations for all three individual UGI cancers were observed for consumption of scalding hot foods (risk increased 150-219% for daily vs. never users) and fresh vegetables and fruits (risk decreased 48-70% for vegetables and 46-68% for fruits, respectively, for high vs. low quartiles). CONCLUSION: This study confirms the minor role of tobacco and alcohol in UGI cancers in this region, and highlights thermal damage as a leading etiologic factor. SN - 1877-783X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21846596/Risk_factors_for_esophageal_and_gastric_cancers_in_Shanxi_Province_China:_a_case_control_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1877-7821(11)00106-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -