First influenza season after the 2009 pandemic influenza: characteristics of intensive care unit admissions in adults and children in Vall d'Hebron Hospital.Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Apr; 18(4):374-80.CM
To assess potential differences in epidemiology and management of patients admitted with influenza infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) during the first post-pandemic influenza period. Observational prospective study comparing September 2009-January 2010 with September 2010-January 2011. Variables captured: demographics, co-morbidities, physiological parameters, outcomes and management. Analysis was performed using SPSS v. 13.0; significance was set at p 0.5. Data from 53 patients, 38 adults (age, median 41.5 years; interquartile range (IQR) 32.8-51.3) and 15 children (age, median 2 years, IQR 0.5-9) are presented. Vaccination rates were 0% and 4.3% during the first and second periods, respectively. Differences postpandemic were: 100% of episodes developed after December compared with 16.7% in the 2009 season. Younger children were affected (median age 0.8 years (IQR 0.3-4.8) vs 7 years (IQR 1.25-11.5), p 0.05) and influenza B caused 8.7% of ICU admissions. Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 and respiratory syncytial virus epidemics occurred simultaneously (42.8% of children) and bacterial co-infections doubled (from 10% to 21.7%); the prevalence of co-infections (viral or bacterial) increased from 10% to 39.1% (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.3-24.8). Respiratory syndromes without chest X-ray opacities reflecting exacerbation of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchitis or bronchiolitis increased (from 6.9% to 39.1%, p<0.05) and pneumonia decreased (from 83.3% to 56.5%, p <0.05). Primary viral pneumonia predominated among ICU admissions. Postpandemic ICU influenza developed later, with some cases of influenza B, more frequent bacterial and viral co-infections and more patients with severe acute respiratory infection with normal chest X-ray. Increasing vaccination rates among risk-group individuals is warranted to prevent ICU admission and death.