Bradykinin potentiating factor isolated from Buthus occitanus venom has a protective effect against cadmium-induced rat liver and kidney damage.Tissue Cell. 2011 Dec; 43(6):337-43.TC
Bradykinin and its related peptides are widely distributed in venomous animals, including scorpion. A peptide fraction isolated from the venom of the Egyptian scorpion Buthus occitanus was proved to have a bradykinin-potentiating activity. The aim of the present study was conducted to investigate whether the treatment with bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF) offers more beneficial effects in reversing cadmium-induced oxidative stress in rat liver and kidney. Adult male rats, equally divided into control and two treated groups, 10 animals in each group. group (I) was orally given (1 ml) saline and served as a control group; group (II) of rats was given cadmium chloride (4 mg/kg) alone, once daily an oral dose for 7 successive days; group (III) of rats was given ip injection (1 ml) BPF, once daily a dose for 7 successive days prior to CdCl(2) treatment and on the next 7 successive days with the same dose of cadmium as group II. Both organs were subjected to histopathological analysis with the light microscope. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), asparate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum were measured as indicators of the liver function. As parameters of the kidney function, creatinine, uric acid and urea concentrations in serum were determined. Also, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were determined in both tissues. Cd exposure caused a significant decrease or inhibition in the activities of GSH, SOD, and CAT, with significant increase in the level of MDA, in versus to control groups in both liver and kidney. Also, when Cd was treated in co-administration with BPF induced increase or stimulation in the activity of GSH, SOD, and CAT, with significant decrease in the level of MDA when compared to Cd group in both organs. Histopathological changes of liver and kidney were also in accordance with the biochemical findings. Our data showed that Cd treatment induced histopathological alteration in the liver, severe hydropic degeneration in centrolobular zones. Inflammatory cells infiltration around the congested central vein and an obvious injury in some renal tubules. Bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF) administration prevented the histopathological alterations which observed in Cd-groups and both liver and kidney had essentially normal appearance in histopathological examination. In conclusion, BPF markedly ameliorated cadmium-induced liver and kidney tissue damage as evidenced by histological and biochemical examinations and acts as a potent scavenger of free radicals to protect the liver and kidney against the deleterious effect of acute cadmium intoxication.