[Trans-fatty acids--effects on coronary heart disease].Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2011 Jul; 31(181):56-9.PM
Trans-fatty acids (TFA) are formed during the industrial process of hydrogenation of vegetable oils. The consumption of hydrogenated fats has increased significantly over the last few decades. In Poland, the average daily intake of TFA for adults was estimated to be 2.8 to 6.9 g; which greatly exceeds the recommended daily maximum of 2 g/day (less than 1% of total energy intake). Increasing trans-fatty acid intake has detrimental effects on the lipid profile: TFA raise total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, and decrease HDL-cholesterol levels. Moreover, dietary trans-fatty acids may increase plasma levels of lipoprotein (a) and biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Several studies have demonstrated that a high intake of TFA is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. In addition, TFA consumption has been implicated as an independent risk factor for sudden cardiac arrest. It is therefore necessary to reduce the intake of hydrogenated fats rich in trans-fatty acids in order to minimize the adverse effects of TFA on health.