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The relationship of current depressive symptoms and past depression with cognitive impairment and instrumental activities of daily living in an elderly population: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

Abstract

Depressive symptoms are common in the elderly and they have been associated with cognitive and functional impairment. However, relatively less is known about the relationship of a lifetime history of depression to cognitive impairment and functional status. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess whether current depressive symptoms and past depression are associated with cognitive or functional impairment in a community-based sample representative of east Sydney, Australia. We also examined whether there was an interaction between current and past depression in their effects on cognitive performance. Eight hundred non-demented aged participants received a neuropsychological assessment, a past psychiatric history interview and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. The Bayer-Activities of Daily Living scale was completed by an informant to determine functional ability. Clinically relevant depressive symptoms were present in 6.1% of the sample and 16.6% reported a history of depression. Participants with current depression had significantly higher levels of psychological distress and anxiety, and lower life satisfaction and performed worse on memory and executive function compared to participants without current depression. After controlling for anxiety the effect on executive function was no longer significant while the effect on memory remained significant. A history of depression was associated with worse executive function, higher levels of psychological distress and anxiety, and lower life satisfaction. After controlling for psychological distress the effect of past depression on executive function was no longer significant. There were no significant interactions between current and past depression in their effects on cognitive performance. There were no differences between participants with or without current depression and with or without past depression on functional abilities. These results support the view that current and past depressive episodes are associated with poorer cognitive performance but not with functional abilities.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Brain and Ageing Research Program, School of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Randwick Campus, Building R1f, UNSW, NSW 2052, Sydney, Australia. s.reppermund@unsw.edu.au

    , , , , , ,

    Source

    Journal of psychiatric research 45:12 2011 Dec pg 1600-7

    MeSH

    Activities of Daily Living
    Age Factors
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Australia
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Chi-Square Distribution
    Cognition Disorders
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Depressive Disorder
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Neuropsychological Tests
    Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
    Residence Characteristics
    Retrospective Studies
    Risk Factors
    Sex Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21871636

    Citation

    Reppermund, S, et al. "The Relationship of Current Depressive Symptoms and Past Depression With Cognitive Impairment and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in an Elderly Population: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study." Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 45, no. 12, 2011, pp. 1600-7.
    Reppermund S, Brodaty H, Crawford JD, et al. The relationship of current depressive symptoms and past depression with cognitive impairment and instrumental activities of daily living in an elderly population: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45(12):1600-7.
    Reppermund, S., Brodaty, H., Crawford, J. D., Kochan, N. A., Slavin, M. J., Trollor, J. N., ... Sachdev, P. S. (2011). The relationship of current depressive symptoms and past depression with cognitive impairment and instrumental activities of daily living in an elderly population: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(12), pp. 1600-7. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.08.001.
    Reppermund S, et al. The Relationship of Current Depressive Symptoms and Past Depression With Cognitive Impairment and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in an Elderly Population: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45(12):1600-7. PubMed PMID: 21871636.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The relationship of current depressive symptoms and past depression with cognitive impairment and instrumental activities of daily living in an elderly population: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. AU - Reppermund,S, AU - Brodaty,H, AU - Crawford,J D, AU - Kochan,N A, AU - Slavin,M J, AU - Trollor,J N, AU - Draper,B, AU - Sachdev,P S, Y1 - 2011/08/26/ PY - 2011/02/14/received PY - 2011/06/17/revised PY - 2011/08/09/accepted PY - 2011/8/30/entrez PY - 2011/8/30/pubmed PY - 2012/3/13/medline SP - 1600 EP - 7 JF - Journal of psychiatric research JO - J Psychiatr Res VL - 45 IS - 12 N2 - Depressive symptoms are common in the elderly and they have been associated with cognitive and functional impairment. However, relatively less is known about the relationship of a lifetime history of depression to cognitive impairment and functional status. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess whether current depressive symptoms and past depression are associated with cognitive or functional impairment in a community-based sample representative of east Sydney, Australia. We also examined whether there was an interaction between current and past depression in their effects on cognitive performance. Eight hundred non-demented aged participants received a neuropsychological assessment, a past psychiatric history interview and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. The Bayer-Activities of Daily Living scale was completed by an informant to determine functional ability. Clinically relevant depressive symptoms were present in 6.1% of the sample and 16.6% reported a history of depression. Participants with current depression had significantly higher levels of psychological distress and anxiety, and lower life satisfaction and performed worse on memory and executive function compared to participants without current depression. After controlling for anxiety the effect on executive function was no longer significant while the effect on memory remained significant. A history of depression was associated with worse executive function, higher levels of psychological distress and anxiety, and lower life satisfaction. After controlling for psychological distress the effect of past depression on executive function was no longer significant. There were no significant interactions between current and past depression in their effects on cognitive performance. There were no differences between participants with or without current depression and with or without past depression on functional abilities. These results support the view that current and past depressive episodes are associated with poorer cognitive performance but not with functional abilities. SN - 1879-1379 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21871636/The_relationship_of_current_depressive_symptoms_and_past_depression_with_cognitive_impairment_and_instrumental_activities_of_daily_living_in_an_elderly_population:_the_Sydney_Memory_and_Ageing_Study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022-3956(11)00172-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -