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Lasting first impressions: a conservative bias in automatic filters of the acoustic environment.
Neuropsychologia. 2011 Oct; 49(12):3399-405.N

Abstract

Even in the unattended auditory environment, what we learn first appears resistant to re-evaluation based on experience. Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an auditory event-related potential elicited to rare deviation from automatically generated predictions about the sound environment. MMN amplitude is thought to reflect the potential importance of a sound for further processing. This study was designed to explore the degree to which past experience with a sound can alter automatic attributions about that sound's importance. MMN was elicited to rare (p=.125) physical "deviants" amongst a sequence of highly probable (p=.875) "standard" sounds. Sound identity alternated across blocks within the sequence (i.e., the former deviant became the new standard and the former standard the new deviant). The time period over which a standard remained the more probable tone was varied over Fast (0.8 min), Medium (1.6 min) and Slow (2.4 min) change conditions. Given that local within-block probabilities remained constant across conditions, any change in MMN size was considered a reflection of more rostral brain regions enabling a longer time scale (across-block) representation of event-probability extraction. Larger MMNs were expected to deviations in blocks with longer standard-stability. Although a significant increase in MMN amplitude was observed with increased rule stability, MMN amplitude was heavily dependent on the initial sequence structure. A "primacy bias" was observed such that prolonged stability produced large increases in the MMN to deviations from the first established standard but substantially smaller MMN to this first standard as a later deviant. The primacy effect in these data implies that the automatic filtering of sound relevance is biased toward a confirmation of initial expectations. Initial experience therefore altered the perceived salience of subsequent events.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia. Juanita.Todd@newcastle.edu.auNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21872613

Citation

Todd, Juanita, et al. "Lasting First Impressions: a Conservative Bias in Automatic Filters of the Acoustic Environment." Neuropsychologia, vol. 49, no. 12, 2011, pp. 3399-405.
Todd J, Provost A, Cooper G. Lasting first impressions: a conservative bias in automatic filters of the acoustic environment. Neuropsychologia. 2011;49(12):3399-405.
Todd, J., Provost, A., & Cooper, G. (2011). Lasting first impressions: a conservative bias in automatic filters of the acoustic environment. Neuropsychologia, 49(12), 3399-405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.08.016
Todd J, Provost A, Cooper G. Lasting First Impressions: a Conservative Bias in Automatic Filters of the Acoustic Environment. Neuropsychologia. 2011;49(12):3399-405. PubMed PMID: 21872613.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Lasting first impressions: a conservative bias in automatic filters of the acoustic environment. AU - Todd,Juanita, AU - Provost,Alexander, AU - Cooper,Gavin, Y1 - 2011/08/19/ PY - 2011/06/17/received PY - 2011/08/10/revised PY - 2011/08/12/accepted PY - 2011/8/30/entrez PY - 2011/8/30/pubmed PY - 2012/2/15/medline SP - 3399 EP - 405 JF - Neuropsychologia JO - Neuropsychologia VL - 49 IS - 12 N2 - Even in the unattended auditory environment, what we learn first appears resistant to re-evaluation based on experience. Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an auditory event-related potential elicited to rare deviation from automatically generated predictions about the sound environment. MMN amplitude is thought to reflect the potential importance of a sound for further processing. This study was designed to explore the degree to which past experience with a sound can alter automatic attributions about that sound's importance. MMN was elicited to rare (p=.125) physical "deviants" amongst a sequence of highly probable (p=.875) "standard" sounds. Sound identity alternated across blocks within the sequence (i.e., the former deviant became the new standard and the former standard the new deviant). The time period over which a standard remained the more probable tone was varied over Fast (0.8 min), Medium (1.6 min) and Slow (2.4 min) change conditions. Given that local within-block probabilities remained constant across conditions, any change in MMN size was considered a reflection of more rostral brain regions enabling a longer time scale (across-block) representation of event-probability extraction. Larger MMNs were expected to deviations in blocks with longer standard-stability. Although a significant increase in MMN amplitude was observed with increased rule stability, MMN amplitude was heavily dependent on the initial sequence structure. A "primacy bias" was observed such that prolonged stability produced large increases in the MMN to deviations from the first established standard but substantially smaller MMN to this first standard as a later deviant. The primacy effect in these data implies that the automatic filtering of sound relevance is biased toward a confirmation of initial expectations. Initial experience therefore altered the perceived salience of subsequent events. SN - 1873-3514 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21872613/Lasting_first_impressions:_a_conservative_bias_in_automatic_filters_of_the_acoustic_environment_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0028-3932(11)00395-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -