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Dietary modeling shows that substitution of whole-grain for refined-grain ingredients of foods commonly consumed by US children and teens can increase intake of whole grains.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Sep; 111(9):1322-8.JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Currently available whole-grain foods are not frequently consumed, and few children achieve the whole-grain intake recommendation.

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the influence on whole-grain consumption of substituting whole-grain for refined-grain ingredients of foods commonly consumed by children.

DESIGN

Secondary cross-sectional analysis of publicly available food consumption data collected by the US Department of Agriculture.

PARTICIPANTS/SETTING

A nationally representative sample of US children aged 9 to 18 years (n=2,349) providing 24-hour dietary recall data in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Whole-grain intake was modeled by replacing varying proportions of refined flour contained in foods such as pizza crust, pasta, breads, and other baked goods with whole-wheat flour, and by replacing a proportion of white rice with brown rice. Replacement levels were based on the acceptability of whole-grain foods tested among children in elementary schools, and ranged from 15% to 50%; the majority were ≤25%.

STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED

Sample-weighted mean premodeled and postmodeled whole-grain intake, standard errors, and statistical significance of differences between demographic subgroups were determined using SUDAAN (version 9.0.3, 2007, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC).

RESULT

Whole-grain intake increased 1.7 oz eq per day (from 0.5 to 2.2 oz eq/day). Premodeled and postmodeled whole-grain intakes were 6% and 28%, respectively, of total grain intake (7.7 oz eq/day). Major sources of postmodeled whole-grain intakes were breads/rolls (28.0%); pizza (14.2%); breakfast cereals (11.0%); rice/pasta (10.6%); quick breads such as tortillas, muffins, and waffles (10.8%); other baked goods (9.9%); and grain-based savory snacks other than popcorn (7.3%). Premodeled whole-grain intake differed by poverty level, but postmodeled whole-grain intake did not.

CONCLUSIONS

The substitution of whole grain for a specific proportion of refined grain ingredients of commonly consumed foods increased whole-grain intake and reduced disparities between demographic subgroups of children and teens.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Food & Nutrition Database Research, Inc, Okemos, MI, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21872695

Citation

Keast, Debra R., et al. "Dietary Modeling Shows That Substitution of Whole-grain for Refined-grain Ingredients of Foods Commonly Consumed By US Children and Teens Can Increase Intake of Whole Grains." Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 111, no. 9, 2011, pp. 1322-8.
Keast DR, Rosen RA, Arndt EA, et al. Dietary modeling shows that substitution of whole-grain for refined-grain ingredients of foods commonly consumed by US children and teens can increase intake of whole grains. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(9):1322-8.
Keast, D. R., Rosen, R. A., Arndt, E. A., & Marquart, L. F. (2011). Dietary modeling shows that substitution of whole-grain for refined-grain ingredients of foods commonly consumed by US children and teens can increase intake of whole grains. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111(9), 1322-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2011.06.008
Keast DR, et al. Dietary Modeling Shows That Substitution of Whole-grain for Refined-grain Ingredients of Foods Commonly Consumed By US Children and Teens Can Increase Intake of Whole Grains. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(9):1322-8. PubMed PMID: 21872695.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary modeling shows that substitution of whole-grain for refined-grain ingredients of foods commonly consumed by US children and teens can increase intake of whole grains. AU - Keast,Debra R, AU - Rosen,Renee A, AU - Arndt,Elizabeth A, AU - Marquart,Len F, PY - 2010/09/21/received PY - 2011/03/21/accepted PY - 2011/8/30/entrez PY - 2011/8/30/pubmed PY - 2011/10/12/medline SP - 1322 EP - 8 JF - Journal of the American Dietetic Association JO - J Am Diet Assoc VL - 111 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: Currently available whole-grain foods are not frequently consumed, and few children achieve the whole-grain intake recommendation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence on whole-grain consumption of substituting whole-grain for refined-grain ingredients of foods commonly consumed by children. DESIGN: Secondary cross-sectional analysis of publicly available food consumption data collected by the US Department of Agriculture. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: A nationally representative sample of US children aged 9 to 18 years (n=2,349) providing 24-hour dietary recall data in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Whole-grain intake was modeled by replacing varying proportions of refined flour contained in foods such as pizza crust, pasta, breads, and other baked goods with whole-wheat flour, and by replacing a proportion of white rice with brown rice. Replacement levels were based on the acceptability of whole-grain foods tested among children in elementary schools, and ranged from 15% to 50%; the majority were ≤25%. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Sample-weighted mean premodeled and postmodeled whole-grain intake, standard errors, and statistical significance of differences between demographic subgroups were determined using SUDAAN (version 9.0.3, 2007, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC). RESULT: Whole-grain intake increased 1.7 oz eq per day (from 0.5 to 2.2 oz eq/day). Premodeled and postmodeled whole-grain intakes were 6% and 28%, respectively, of total grain intake (7.7 oz eq/day). Major sources of postmodeled whole-grain intakes were breads/rolls (28.0%); pizza (14.2%); breakfast cereals (11.0%); rice/pasta (10.6%); quick breads such as tortillas, muffins, and waffles (10.8%); other baked goods (9.9%); and grain-based savory snacks other than popcorn (7.3%). Premodeled whole-grain intake differed by poverty level, but postmodeled whole-grain intake did not. CONCLUSIONS: The substitution of whole grain for a specific proportion of refined grain ingredients of commonly consumed foods increased whole-grain intake and reduced disparities between demographic subgroups of children and teens. SN - 1878-3570 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21872695/Dietary_modeling_shows_that_substitution_of_whole_grain_for_refined_grain_ingredients_of_foods_commonly_consumed_by_US_children_and_teens_can_increase_intake_of_whole_grains_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-8223(11)00704-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -