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Oral antimicrobial agents--chlorhexidine.
NCI Monogr. 1990NM

Abstract

Chlorhexidine's structural characteristics give it potent antimicrobial activity, effectiveness at low concentrations, substantivity that prolongs its therapeutic effect in the oral environment, minimal resorption from the gastrointestinal tract, and the ability to reduce plaque. The use of this agent for oral stomatitis in neoplasia patients has recently been studied. Treatment-associated oral soft tissue inflammation and ulceration were significantly reduced by chlorhexidine in patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy. Reductions in total streptococci and yeast counts were also observed. When used in conjunction with systemic antifungal agents, such as nystatin or clotrimazole, a significantly decreased incidence of clinical oral candidiasis and Candida septicemia was observed. In contrast, in two studies in which high-dose head and neck radiation therapy was applied, there was no reduction in stomatitis. Oral gram-negative bacilli have been shown to increase in high-dose chemotherapy patients who are taking chlorhexidine during the treatment period (3 wk to 2 mo). However, no increase in systemic gram-negative infections or other adverse negative medical consequences were observed. This agent appears to be of therapeutic benefit in reduction of dental plaque, gingivitis, and stomatitis in the high-risk chemotherapy population when used in conjunction with other topical and systemic antimicrobial agents as prophylaxis. Although no toxic or serious adverse effects of chlorhexidine rinse have been observed in the short-term studies to date, the effects of longer-term chlorhexidine administration should be evaluated.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Oral Health Practice, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

2188158

Citation

Ferretti, G A., et al. "Oral Antimicrobial Agents--chlorhexidine." NCI Monographs : a Publication of the National Cancer Institute, 1990, pp. 51-5.
Ferretti GA, Brown AT, Raybould TP, et al. Oral antimicrobial agents--chlorhexidine. NCI Monogr. 1990.
Ferretti, G. A., Brown, A. T., Raybould, T. P., & Lillich, T. T. (1990). Oral antimicrobial agents--chlorhexidine. NCI Monographs : a Publication of the National Cancer Institute, (9), 51-5.
Ferretti GA, et al. Oral Antimicrobial Agents--chlorhexidine. NCI Monogr. 1990;(9)51-5. PubMed PMID: 2188158.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Oral antimicrobial agents--chlorhexidine. AU - Ferretti,G A, AU - Brown,A T, AU - Raybould,T P, AU - Lillich,T T, PY - 1990/1/1/pubmed PY - 1990/1/1/medline PY - 1990/1/1/entrez SP - 51 EP - 5 JF - NCI monographs : a publication of the National Cancer Institute JO - NCI Monogr IS - 9 N2 - Chlorhexidine's structural characteristics give it potent antimicrobial activity, effectiveness at low concentrations, substantivity that prolongs its therapeutic effect in the oral environment, minimal resorption from the gastrointestinal tract, and the ability to reduce plaque. The use of this agent for oral stomatitis in neoplasia patients has recently been studied. Treatment-associated oral soft tissue inflammation and ulceration were significantly reduced by chlorhexidine in patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy. Reductions in total streptococci and yeast counts were also observed. When used in conjunction with systemic antifungal agents, such as nystatin or clotrimazole, a significantly decreased incidence of clinical oral candidiasis and Candida septicemia was observed. In contrast, in two studies in which high-dose head and neck radiation therapy was applied, there was no reduction in stomatitis. Oral gram-negative bacilli have been shown to increase in high-dose chemotherapy patients who are taking chlorhexidine during the treatment period (3 wk to 2 mo). However, no increase in systemic gram-negative infections or other adverse negative medical consequences were observed. This agent appears to be of therapeutic benefit in reduction of dental plaque, gingivitis, and stomatitis in the high-risk chemotherapy population when used in conjunction with other topical and systemic antimicrobial agents as prophylaxis. Although no toxic or serious adverse effects of chlorhexidine rinse have been observed in the short-term studies to date, the effects of longer-term chlorhexidine administration should be evaluated. SN - 0893-2751 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/2188158/Oral_antimicrobial_agents__chlorhexidine_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/mouthdisorders.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -