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A molecular and antigenic survey of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from smallholder duck farms in Central Java, Indonesia during 2007-2008.
Virol J. 2011 Sep 07; 8:425.VJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Indonesia is one of the countries most severely affected by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in terms of poultry and human health. However, there is little information on the diversity of H5N1 viruses circulating in backyard farms, where chickens and ducks often intermingle. In this study, H5N1 virus infection occurring in 96 smallholder duck farms in central Java, Indonesia from 2007-2008 was investigated and the molecular and antigenic characteristics of H5N1 viruses isolated from these farms were analysed.

RESULTS

All 84 characterised viruses belonged to H5N1 clade 2.1 with three virus sublineages being identified: clade 2.1.1 (1), clade 2.1.3 (80), and IDN/6/05-like viruses (3) that did not belong to any of the present clades. All three clades were found in ducks, while only clade 2.1.3 was isolated from chickens. There were no significant amino acid mutations of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sites of the viruses, including the receptor binding, glycosylation, antigenic and catalytic sites and NA inhibitor targets. All the viruses had polybasic amino acids at the HA cleavage site. No evidence of major antigenic variants was detected. Based on the HA gene, identical virus variants could be found on different farms across the study sites and multiple genetic variants could be isolated from HPAI outbreaks simultaneously or at different time points from single farms. HPAI virus was isolated from both ducks and chickens; however, the proportion of surviving duck cases was considerably higher than in chickens.

CONCLUSIONS

The 2.1.3 clade was the most common lineage found in this study. All the viruses had sequence characteristic of HPAI, but negligible variations in other recognized amino acids at the HA and NA proteins which determine virus phenotypes. Multiple genetic variants appeared to be circulating simultaneously within poultry communities. The high proportion of live duck cases compared to chickens over the study period suggests that ducks are more likely to survive infection and they may better suit the role of long-term maintenance host for H5N1. As some viruses were isolated from dead birds, there was no clear correlation between genetic variations and pathogenicity of these viruses.

Authors+Show Affiliations

CSIRO-Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Hendra.Wibawa@csiro.auNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21896207

Citation

Wibawa, Hendra, et al. "A Molecular and Antigenic Survey of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Isolates From Smallholder Duck Farms in Central Java, Indonesia During 2007-2008." Virology Journal, vol. 8, 2011, p. 425.
Wibawa H, Henning J, Wong F, et al. A molecular and antigenic survey of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from smallholder duck farms in Central Java, Indonesia during 2007-2008. Virol J. 2011;8:425.
Wibawa, H., Henning, J., Wong, F., Selleck, P., Junaidi, A., Bingham, J., Daniels, P., & Meers, J. (2011). A molecular and antigenic survey of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from smallholder duck farms in Central Java, Indonesia during 2007-2008. Virology Journal, 8, 425. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-8-425
Wibawa H, et al. A Molecular and Antigenic Survey of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Isolates From Smallholder Duck Farms in Central Java, Indonesia During 2007-2008. Virol J. 2011 Sep 7;8:425. PubMed PMID: 21896207.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A molecular and antigenic survey of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from smallholder duck farms in Central Java, Indonesia during 2007-2008. AU - Wibawa,Hendra, AU - Henning,Joerg, AU - Wong,Frank, AU - Selleck,Paul, AU - Junaidi,Akhmad, AU - Bingham,John, AU - Daniels,Peter, AU - Meers,Joanne, Y1 - 2011/09/07/ PY - 2011/07/26/received PY - 2011/09/07/accepted PY - 2011/9/8/entrez PY - 2011/9/8/pubmed PY - 2012/1/13/medline SP - 425 EP - 425 JF - Virology journal JO - Virol J VL - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND: Indonesia is one of the countries most severely affected by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in terms of poultry and human health. However, there is little information on the diversity of H5N1 viruses circulating in backyard farms, where chickens and ducks often intermingle. In this study, H5N1 virus infection occurring in 96 smallholder duck farms in central Java, Indonesia from 2007-2008 was investigated and the molecular and antigenic characteristics of H5N1 viruses isolated from these farms were analysed. RESULTS: All 84 characterised viruses belonged to H5N1 clade 2.1 with three virus sublineages being identified: clade 2.1.1 (1), clade 2.1.3 (80), and IDN/6/05-like viruses (3) that did not belong to any of the present clades. All three clades were found in ducks, while only clade 2.1.3 was isolated from chickens. There were no significant amino acid mutations of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sites of the viruses, including the receptor binding, glycosylation, antigenic and catalytic sites and NA inhibitor targets. All the viruses had polybasic amino acids at the HA cleavage site. No evidence of major antigenic variants was detected. Based on the HA gene, identical virus variants could be found on different farms across the study sites and multiple genetic variants could be isolated from HPAI outbreaks simultaneously or at different time points from single farms. HPAI virus was isolated from both ducks and chickens; however, the proportion of surviving duck cases was considerably higher than in chickens. CONCLUSIONS: The 2.1.3 clade was the most common lineage found in this study. All the viruses had sequence characteristic of HPAI, but negligible variations in other recognized amino acids at the HA and NA proteins which determine virus phenotypes. Multiple genetic variants appeared to be circulating simultaneously within poultry communities. The high proportion of live duck cases compared to chickens over the study period suggests that ducks are more likely to survive infection and they may better suit the role of long-term maintenance host for H5N1. As some viruses were isolated from dead birds, there was no clear correlation between genetic variations and pathogenicity of these viruses. SN - 1743-422X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21896207/A_molecular_and_antigenic_survey_of_H5N1_highly_pathogenic_avian_influenza_virus_isolates_from_smallholder_duck_farms_in_Central_Java_Indonesia_during_2007_2008_ L2 - https://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-422X-8-425 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -