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Trends in probable PTSD in firefighters exposed to the World Trade Center disaster, 2001-2010.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2011 Sep; 5 Suppl 2:S197-203.DM

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

We present the longest follow-up, to date, of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City firefighters who participated in the rescue/recovery effort.

METHODS

We examined data from 11,006 WTC-exposed firefighters who completed 40,672 questionnaires and reported estimates of probable PTSD by year from serial cross-sectional analyses. In longitudinal analyses, we used separate Cox models with data beginning from October 2, 2001, to identify variables associated with recovery from or delayed onset of probable PTSD.

RESULTS

The prevalence of probable PTSD was 7.4% by September 11, 2010, and continued to be associated with early arrival at the WTC towers during every year of analysis. An increasing number of aerodigestive symptoms (hazard ratio [HR] 0.89 per symptom, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86-.93) and reporting a decrease in exercise, whether the result of health (HR 0.56 vs no change in exercise, 95% CI 0.41-.78) or other reasons (HR 0.76 vs no change in exercise, 95% CI 0.63-.92), were associated with a lower likelihood of recovery from probable PTSD. Arriving early at the WTC (HR 1.38 vs later WTC arrival, 95% CI 1.12-1.70), an increasing number of aerodigestive symptoms (HR 1.45 per symptom, 95% CI 1.40-1.51), and reporting an increase in alcohol intake since September 11, 2001 (HR 3.43 vs no increase in alcohol intake, 95% CI 2.67-4.43) were associated with delayed onset of probable PTSD.

CONCLUSIONS

Probable PTSD continues to be associated with early WTC arrival even 9 years after the terrorist attacks. Concurrent conditions and behaviors, such as respiratory symptoms, exercise, and alcohol use also play important roles in contributing to PTSD symptoms.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21900417

Citation

Soo, Jackie, et al. "Trends in Probable PTSD in Firefighters Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster, 2001-2010." Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, vol. 5 Suppl 2, 2011, pp. S197-203.
Soo J, Webber MP, Gustave J, et al. Trends in probable PTSD in firefighters exposed to the World Trade Center disaster, 2001-2010. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2011;5 Suppl 2:S197-203.
Soo, J., Webber, M. P., Gustave, J., Lee, R., Hall, C. B., Cohen, H. W., Kelly, K. J., & Prezant, D. J. (2011). Trends in probable PTSD in firefighters exposed to the World Trade Center disaster, 2001-2010. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 5 Suppl 2, S197-203. https://doi.org/10.1001/dmp.2011.48
Soo J, et al. Trends in Probable PTSD in Firefighters Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster, 2001-2010. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2011;5 Suppl 2:S197-203. PubMed PMID: 21900417.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Trends in probable PTSD in firefighters exposed to the World Trade Center disaster, 2001-2010. AU - Soo,Jackie, AU - Webber,Mayris P, AU - Gustave,Jackson, AU - Lee,Roy, AU - Hall,Charles B, AU - Cohen,Hillel W, AU - Kelly,Kerry J, AU - Prezant,David J, Y1 - 2011/09/07/ PY - 2011/9/9/entrez PY - 2011/9/9/pubmed PY - 2012/8/15/medline SP - S197 EP - 203 JF - Disaster medicine and public health preparedness JO - Disaster Med Public Health Prep VL - 5 Suppl 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: We present the longest follow-up, to date, of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City firefighters who participated in the rescue/recovery effort. METHODS: We examined data from 11,006 WTC-exposed firefighters who completed 40,672 questionnaires and reported estimates of probable PTSD by year from serial cross-sectional analyses. In longitudinal analyses, we used separate Cox models with data beginning from October 2, 2001, to identify variables associated with recovery from or delayed onset of probable PTSD. RESULTS: The prevalence of probable PTSD was 7.4% by September 11, 2010, and continued to be associated with early arrival at the WTC towers during every year of analysis. An increasing number of aerodigestive symptoms (hazard ratio [HR] 0.89 per symptom, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86-.93) and reporting a decrease in exercise, whether the result of health (HR 0.56 vs no change in exercise, 95% CI 0.41-.78) or other reasons (HR 0.76 vs no change in exercise, 95% CI 0.63-.92), were associated with a lower likelihood of recovery from probable PTSD. Arriving early at the WTC (HR 1.38 vs later WTC arrival, 95% CI 1.12-1.70), an increasing number of aerodigestive symptoms (HR 1.45 per symptom, 95% CI 1.40-1.51), and reporting an increase in alcohol intake since September 11, 2001 (HR 3.43 vs no increase in alcohol intake, 95% CI 2.67-4.43) were associated with delayed onset of probable PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: Probable PTSD continues to be associated with early WTC arrival even 9 years after the terrorist attacks. Concurrent conditions and behaviors, such as respiratory symptoms, exercise, and alcohol use also play important roles in contributing to PTSD symptoms. SN - 1938-744X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21900417/Trends_in_probable_PTSD_in_firefighters_exposed_to_the_World_Trade_Center_disaster_2001_2010_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/dmp.2011.48/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -