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Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies.
Proc Biol Sci. 2012 Mar 22; 279(1731):1093-9.PB

Abstract

Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in order to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that the butterflies, as traditionally understood, are paraphyletic, with Papilionidae being the sister-group to Hesperioidea, Hedyloidea and all other butterflies. Hence, the families in the current three superfamilies should be placed in a single superfamily Papilionoidea. In addition, we find that Hedylidae is sister to Hesperiidae, and this novel relationship is supported by two morphological characters. The families diverged in the Early Cretaceous but diversified after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene event. The diversification of butterflies is characterized by a slow speciation rate in the lineage leading to Baronia brevicornis, a period of stasis by the skippers after divergence and a burst of diversification in the lineages leading to Nymphalidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21920981

Citation

Heikkilä, Maria, et al. "Cretaceous Origin and Repeated Tertiary Diversification of the Redefined Butterflies." Proceedings. Biological Sciences, vol. 279, no. 1731, 2012, pp. 1093-9.
Heikkilä M, Kaila L, Mutanen M, et al. Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies. Proc Biol Sci. 2012;279(1731):1093-9.
Heikkilä, M., Kaila, L., Mutanen, M., Peña, C., & Wahlberg, N. (2012). Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies. Proceedings. Biological Sciences, 279(1731), 1093-9. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2011.1430
Heikkilä M, et al. Cretaceous Origin and Repeated Tertiary Diversification of the Redefined Butterflies. Proc Biol Sci. 2012 Mar 22;279(1731):1093-9. PubMed PMID: 21920981.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies. AU - Heikkilä,Maria, AU - Kaila,Lauri, AU - Mutanen,Marko, AU - Peña,Carlos, AU - Wahlberg,Niklas, Y1 - 2011/09/14/ PY - 2011/9/17/entrez PY - 2011/9/17/pubmed PY - 2012/10/4/medline SP - 1093 EP - 9 JF - Proceedings. Biological sciences JO - Proc Biol Sci VL - 279 IS - 1731 N2 - Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in order to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that the butterflies, as traditionally understood, are paraphyletic, with Papilionidae being the sister-group to Hesperioidea, Hedyloidea and all other butterflies. Hence, the families in the current three superfamilies should be placed in a single superfamily Papilionoidea. In addition, we find that Hedylidae is sister to Hesperiidae, and this novel relationship is supported by two morphological characters. The families diverged in the Early Cretaceous but diversified after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene event. The diversification of butterflies is characterized by a slow speciation rate in the lineage leading to Baronia brevicornis, a period of stasis by the skippers after divergence and a burst of diversification in the lineages leading to Nymphalidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae. SN - 1471-2954 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21920981/Cretaceous_origin_and_repeated_tertiary_diversification_of_the_redefined_butterflies_ L2 - https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2011.1430?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -