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Aggression and violence and the achievement gap among urban minority youth.
J Sch Health. 2011 Oct; 81(10):619-25.JS

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To outline the prevalence and disparities of aggression and violence among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which aggression and violence adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems.

METHODS

Literature review.

RESULTS

Recent national data indicate that among students aged 12-18, approximately 628,200 violent crimes and 868,100 thefts occurred. Physical fighting was more commonly reported by Blacks and Hispanics (44.7% and 40.4%, respectively) than Whites (31.7%). In-school threats and injuries were nearly twice as prevalent in cities as in suburbs and towns or rural areas (10% vs 6% and 5%, respectively). Associations between exposure to and exhibition of aggression and violence and unfavorable educational outcomes are well documented. Causal pathways through which aggression and violence impede learning include cognition, school connectedness, and absenteeism. Disruptive classroom behavior is a well-recognized and significant impediment to teaching and learning. Compelling research has shown that various school-based programs can significantly reduce the nature and extent of aggressive and violent behaviors.

CONCLUSIONS

Violence and aggressive behavior are highly and disproportionately prevalent among school-aged urban minority youth, have a negative impact on academic achievement by adversely affecting cognition, school connectedness, and absenteeism, and effective practices are available for schools to address this problem. Once the domain of criminal justice, aggression and violence are now recognized as an appropriate and important focus of the education and public health systems. Implementing evidence-based school policies and programs to reduce aggression and violence must be a high priority to help close the achievement gap.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health and Behavior Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, 525 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027, USA. ceb35@columbia.edu

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21923874

Citation

Basch, Charles E.. "Aggression and Violence and the Achievement Gap Among Urban Minority Youth." The Journal of School Health, vol. 81, no. 10, 2011, pp. 619-25.
Basch CE. Aggression and violence and the achievement gap among urban minority youth. J Sch Health. 2011;81(10):619-25.
Basch, C. E. (2011). Aggression and violence and the achievement gap among urban minority youth. The Journal of School Health, 81(10), 619-25. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2011.00636.x
Basch CE. Aggression and Violence and the Achievement Gap Among Urban Minority Youth. J Sch Health. 2011;81(10):619-25. PubMed PMID: 21923874.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Aggression and violence and the achievement gap among urban minority youth. A1 - Basch,Charles E, PY - 2011/9/20/entrez PY - 2011/9/20/pubmed PY - 2012/1/28/medline SP - 619 EP - 25 JF - The Journal of school health JO - J Sch Health VL - 81 IS - 10 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To outline the prevalence and disparities of aggression and violence among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which aggression and violence adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: Recent national data indicate that among students aged 12-18, approximately 628,200 violent crimes and 868,100 thefts occurred. Physical fighting was more commonly reported by Blacks and Hispanics (44.7% and 40.4%, respectively) than Whites (31.7%). In-school threats and injuries were nearly twice as prevalent in cities as in suburbs and towns or rural areas (10% vs 6% and 5%, respectively). Associations between exposure to and exhibition of aggression and violence and unfavorable educational outcomes are well documented. Causal pathways through which aggression and violence impede learning include cognition, school connectedness, and absenteeism. Disruptive classroom behavior is a well-recognized and significant impediment to teaching and learning. Compelling research has shown that various school-based programs can significantly reduce the nature and extent of aggressive and violent behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Violence and aggressive behavior are highly and disproportionately prevalent among school-aged urban minority youth, have a negative impact on academic achievement by adversely affecting cognition, school connectedness, and absenteeism, and effective practices are available for schools to address this problem. Once the domain of criminal justice, aggression and violence are now recognized as an appropriate and important focus of the education and public health systems. Implementing evidence-based school policies and programs to reduce aggression and violence must be a high priority to help close the achievement gap. SN - 1746-1561 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21923874/Aggression_and_violence_and_the_achievement_gap_among_urban_minority_youth_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2011.00636.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -