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Comparative study of the cytolytic activity of snake venoms from African spitting cobras (Naja spp., Elapidae) and its neutralization by a polyspecific antivenom.
Toxicon. 2011 Nov; 58(6-7):558-64.T

Abstract

Venoms of several Naja species found in Sub-Saharan Africa, and commonly known as "spitting cobras", induce a predominantly cytotoxic pattern of envenomings that may evolve into tissue necrosis and gangrene. Cytotoxic components of their venoms have been identified as members of the three-finger toxin and phospholipase A(2) protein families. In this study, an in vitro assay using the myogenic cell line C2C12, was utilized to compare the cytolytic activities of venoms from five species of spitting cobras: Naja nigricollis, Naja katiensis, Naja pallida, Naja nubiae, and Naja mossambica. These venoms were strongly cytotoxic, causing a 50% effect at ~1.5 μg/well (15 μg/ml), except for N. katiensis venom, which required nearly twice this amount. Using the cell-based assay, the ability of an equine polyspecific antivenom (EchiTab-Plus-ICP) to neutralize cytotoxicity was assessed. The antivenom completely inhibited the cytotoxic activity of all five venoms, although high antivenom/venom ratios were needed. Neutralization curves displayed the following decreasing order of efficiency: N. nubiae > N. pallida > N. mossambica > N. nigricollis > N. katiensis. Results indicate that neutralizing antibodies toward toxins responsible for this particular effect are present in the antivenom, albeit in low titers. Fucoidan, a natural sulfated polysaccharide known to inhibit the toxic effects of some basic snake venom components, was unable to reduce cytotoxicity of Naja venoms. Results emphasize the need of enhancing the immunogenicity of low molecular mass toxins during antivenom production, as well as to search for useful toxin inhibitors which could complement antivenom therapy.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 11501, Costa Rica.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21924279

Citation

Méndez, Ileana, et al. "Comparative Study of the Cytolytic Activity of Snake Venoms From African Spitting Cobras (Naja Spp., Elapidae) and Its Neutralization By a Polyspecific Antivenom." Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, vol. 58, no. 6-7, 2011, pp. 558-64.
Méndez I, Gutiérrez JM, Angulo Y, et al. Comparative study of the cytolytic activity of snake venoms from African spitting cobras (Naja spp., Elapidae) and its neutralization by a polyspecific antivenom. Toxicon. 2011;58(6-7):558-64.
Méndez, I., Gutiérrez, J. M., Angulo, Y., Calvete, J. J., & Lomonte, B. (2011). Comparative study of the cytolytic activity of snake venoms from African spitting cobras (Naja spp., Elapidae) and its neutralization by a polyspecific antivenom. Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, 58(6-7), 558-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2011.08.018
Méndez I, et al. Comparative Study of the Cytolytic Activity of Snake Venoms From African Spitting Cobras (Naja Spp., Elapidae) and Its Neutralization By a Polyspecific Antivenom. Toxicon. 2011;58(6-7):558-64. PubMed PMID: 21924279.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparative study of the cytolytic activity of snake venoms from African spitting cobras (Naja spp., Elapidae) and its neutralization by a polyspecific antivenom. AU - Méndez,Ileana, AU - Gutiérrez,José María, AU - Angulo,Yamileth, AU - Calvete,Juan J, AU - Lomonte,Bruno, Y1 - 2011/09/08/ PY - 2011/07/01/received PY - 2011/08/26/revised PY - 2011/08/30/accepted PY - 2011/9/20/entrez PY - 2011/9/20/pubmed PY - 2012/1/25/medline SP - 558 EP - 64 JF - Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology JO - Toxicon VL - 58 IS - 6-7 N2 - Venoms of several Naja species found in Sub-Saharan Africa, and commonly known as "spitting cobras", induce a predominantly cytotoxic pattern of envenomings that may evolve into tissue necrosis and gangrene. Cytotoxic components of their venoms have been identified as members of the three-finger toxin and phospholipase A(2) protein families. In this study, an in vitro assay using the myogenic cell line C2C12, was utilized to compare the cytolytic activities of venoms from five species of spitting cobras: Naja nigricollis, Naja katiensis, Naja pallida, Naja nubiae, and Naja mossambica. These venoms were strongly cytotoxic, causing a 50% effect at ~1.5 μg/well (15 μg/ml), except for N. katiensis venom, which required nearly twice this amount. Using the cell-based assay, the ability of an equine polyspecific antivenom (EchiTab-Plus-ICP) to neutralize cytotoxicity was assessed. The antivenom completely inhibited the cytotoxic activity of all five venoms, although high antivenom/venom ratios were needed. Neutralization curves displayed the following decreasing order of efficiency: N. nubiae > N. pallida > N. mossambica > N. nigricollis > N. katiensis. Results indicate that neutralizing antibodies toward toxins responsible for this particular effect are present in the antivenom, albeit in low titers. Fucoidan, a natural sulfated polysaccharide known to inhibit the toxic effects of some basic snake venom components, was unable to reduce cytotoxicity of Naja venoms. Results emphasize the need of enhancing the immunogenicity of low molecular mass toxins during antivenom production, as well as to search for useful toxin inhibitors which could complement antivenom therapy. SN - 1879-3150 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21924279/Comparative_study_of_the_cytolytic_activity_of_snake_venoms_from_African_spitting_cobras__Naja_spp__Elapidae__and_its_neutralization_by_a_polyspecific_antivenom_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0041-0101(11)00274-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -