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Understanding glaucomatous damage: anatomical and functional data from ocular hypertensive rodent retinas.
Prog Retin Eye Res. 2012 Jan; 31(1):1-27.PR

Abstract

Glaucoma, the second most common cause of blindness, is characterized by a progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons, with a concomitant loss of the visual field. Although the exact pathogenesis of glaucoma is not completely understood, a critical risk factor is the elevation, above normal values, of the intraocular pressure. Consequently, deciphering the anatomical and functional changes occurring in the rodent retina as a result of ocular hypertension has potential value, as it may help elucidate the pathology of retinal ganglion cell degeneration induced by glaucoma in humans. This paper predominantly reviews the cumulative information from our laboratory's previous, recent and ongoing studies, and discusses the deleterious anatomical and functional effects of ocular hypertension on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in adult rodents. In adult rats and mice, perilimbar and episcleral vein photocauterization induces ocular hypertension, which in turn results in devastating damage of the RGC population. In wide triangular sectors, preferentially located in the dorsal retina, RGCs lose their retrograde axonal transport, first by a functional impairment and after by mechanical causes. This axonal damage affects up to 80% of the RGC population, and eventually causes their death, with somal and intra-retinal axonal degeneration that resembles that observed after optic nerve crush. Importantly, while ocular hypertension affects the RGC population, it spares non-RGC neurons located in the ganglion cell layer of the retina. In addition, functional and morphological studies show permanent alterations of the inner and outer retinal layers, indicating that further to a crush-like injury of axon bundles in the optic nerve head there may by additional insults to the retina, perhaps of ischemic nature.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Departamento de Oftalmología, Facultad de Medicina, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia, Spain. manuel.vidal@um.esNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21946033

Citation

Vidal-Sanz, Manuel, et al. "Understanding Glaucomatous Damage: Anatomical and Functional Data From Ocular Hypertensive Rodent Retinas." Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, vol. 31, no. 1, 2012, pp. 1-27.
Vidal-Sanz M, Salinas-Navarro M, Nadal-Nicolás FM, et al. Understanding glaucomatous damage: anatomical and functional data from ocular hypertensive rodent retinas. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2012;31(1):1-27.
Vidal-Sanz, M., Salinas-Navarro, M., Nadal-Nicolás, F. M., Alarcón-Martínez, L., Valiente-Soriano, F. J., de Imperial, J. M., Avilés-Trigueros, M., Agudo-Barriuso, M., & Villegas-Pérez, M. P. (2012). Understanding glaucomatous damage: anatomical and functional data from ocular hypertensive rodent retinas. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 31(1), 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2011.08.001
Vidal-Sanz M, et al. Understanding Glaucomatous Damage: Anatomical and Functional Data From Ocular Hypertensive Rodent Retinas. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2012;31(1):1-27. PubMed PMID: 21946033.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Understanding glaucomatous damage: anatomical and functional data from ocular hypertensive rodent retinas. AU - Vidal-Sanz,Manuel, AU - Salinas-Navarro,Manuel, AU - Nadal-Nicolás,Francisco M, AU - Alarcón-Martínez,Luis, AU - Valiente-Soriano,F Javier, AU - de Imperial,Jaime Miralles, AU - Avilés-Trigueros,Marcelino, AU - Agudo-Barriuso,Marta, AU - Villegas-Pérez,Maria P, Y1 - 2011/09/21/ PY - 2011/07/19/received PY - 2011/08/23/revised PY - 2011/08/24/accepted PY - 2011/9/28/entrez PY - 2011/9/29/pubmed PY - 2012/2/18/medline SP - 1 EP - 27 JF - Progress in retinal and eye research JO - Prog Retin Eye Res VL - 31 IS - 1 N2 - Glaucoma, the second most common cause of blindness, is characterized by a progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons, with a concomitant loss of the visual field. Although the exact pathogenesis of glaucoma is not completely understood, a critical risk factor is the elevation, above normal values, of the intraocular pressure. Consequently, deciphering the anatomical and functional changes occurring in the rodent retina as a result of ocular hypertension has potential value, as it may help elucidate the pathology of retinal ganglion cell degeneration induced by glaucoma in humans. This paper predominantly reviews the cumulative information from our laboratory's previous, recent and ongoing studies, and discusses the deleterious anatomical and functional effects of ocular hypertension on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in adult rodents. In adult rats and mice, perilimbar and episcleral vein photocauterization induces ocular hypertension, which in turn results in devastating damage of the RGC population. In wide triangular sectors, preferentially located in the dorsal retina, RGCs lose their retrograde axonal transport, first by a functional impairment and after by mechanical causes. This axonal damage affects up to 80% of the RGC population, and eventually causes their death, with somal and intra-retinal axonal degeneration that resembles that observed after optic nerve crush. Importantly, while ocular hypertension affects the RGC population, it spares non-RGC neurons located in the ganglion cell layer of the retina. In addition, functional and morphological studies show permanent alterations of the inner and outer retinal layers, indicating that further to a crush-like injury of axon bundles in the optic nerve head there may by additional insults to the retina, perhaps of ischemic nature. SN - 1873-1635 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21946033/Understanding_glaucomatous_damage:_anatomical_and_functional_data_from_ocular_hypertensive_rodent_retinas_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1350-9462(11)00061-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -