Study of mother-infant attachment patterns and influence factors in Shanghai.Early Hum Dev. 2012 May; 88(5):295-300.EH
In contrast to the considerable volume of international research on infant attachment development, significantly less research has been conducted in China.
The present study was designed to identify the patterns of mother-infant attachment in Shanghai and to explore the influence factors.
STUDY DESIGN AND SUBJECTS
The subjects included 160 healthy infant-mother dyads. Infant attachment and temperament were assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure and Carey's temperament questionnaire, respectively; the mother's personality, maternal sensitivity and marital satisfaction were assessed with Eysenck's personality questionnaire, Maternal Behavior Q-sort Manual Version 3.1 and Olson's marital questionnaire, respectively. A self-formulated questionnaire of family environment factors was completed by the infant's mother.
Of the 160 infants, 68.2% were rated as securely attached (B) and 31.8% as insecurely attached. Of those infants rated as insecurely attached, 7.5% were characterized as avoidant (A), 21.8% as resistant (C) and 2.5% as disorganized (D). Maternal sensitivity and marital satisfaction as well as the approachability dimension of infant temperament, were significantly different between securely attached infants and insecurely attached infants. From a temperament perspective, resistant infants showed higher-level intensity of reaction than avoidant infants. Moreover, multiple caregivers in the family and infant's sleeping with other caregivers at night were more likely to be associated with insecure mother-infant attachment.
There exist certain cultural characteristics in mother-infant attachment patterns in Shanghai. The influence factors are related with the high involvement of non-mother caregivers as well as maternal sensitivity, marital satisfaction and infant's temperament characteristics.