Lipid mediators and their metabolism in the nucleous: implications for Alzheimer's disease.J Alzheimers Dis 2012; 30 Suppl 2:S163-78JA
Lipid mediators are important endogenous regulators derived from enzymatic degradation of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and cholesterol by phospholipases, sphingomyelinases, and cytochrome P450 hydroxylases, respectively. In neural cells, lipid mediators are associated with proliferation, differentiation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. A major group of lipid mediators, which originates from the enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid, is called eicosanoids (i.e., prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, and lipoxins). The corresponding lipid mediators of docosahexaenoic acid metabolism are named as docosanoids. They include resolvins, protectins (neuroprotectins), and maresins. Docosanoids produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects in brain tissue. Other glycerophospholipid-derived lipid mediators are platelet activating factor, lysophosphatidic acid, and endocannabinoids. Degradation of sphingolipids also results in the generation of sphingolipid-derived lipid mediators, such as ceramide, ceramide 1-phosphate, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate. These mediators are involved in differentiation, growth, cell migration, and apoptosis. Similarly, cholesterol-derived lipid mediators, hydroxycholesterol, produce apoptosis. Abnormal metabolism of lipid mediators may be closely associated with pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.