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Spinal cord regeneration in a tail autotomizing urodele.

Abstract

Adult urodele amphibians possess extensive regenerative abilities, including lens, jaws, limbs, and tails. In this study, we examined the cellular events and time course of spinal cord regeneration in a species, Plethodon cinereus, that has the ability to autotomize its tail as an antipredator strategy. We propose that this species may have enhanced regenerative abilities as further coadaptations with this antipredator strategy. We examined the expression of nestin, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) after autotomy as markers of neural precursor cells and astroglia; we also traced the appearance of new neurons using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine/neuronal nuclei (BrdU/NeuN) double labeling. As expected, the regenerating ependymal tube was a major source of new neurons; however, the spinal cord cranial to the plane of autotomy showed significant mitotic activity, more extensive than what is reported for other urodeles that cannot autotomize their tails. In addition, this species shows upregulation of nestin, vimentin, and GFAP within days after tail autotomy; further, this expression is upregulated within the spinal cord cranial to the plane of autotomy, not just within the extending ependymal tube, as reported in other urodeles. We suggest that enhanced survival of the spinal cord cranial to autotomy allows this portion to participate in the enhanced recovery and regeneration of the spinal cord.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Biology, Ursinus College, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA. edawley@ursinus.edu

    , ,

    Source

    Journal of morphology 273:2 2012 Feb pg 211-25

    MeSH

    Adaptation, Physiological
    Animals
    Astrocytes
    Bromodeoxyuridine
    Ependyma
    Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
    Intermediate Filament Proteins
    Intermediate Filaments
    Nerve Tissue Proteins
    Nestin
    Neurons
    Regeneration
    Spinal Cord
    Spinal Cord Injuries
    Spinal Cord Regeneration
    Tail
    Up-Regulation
    Urodela
    Vimentin

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21956379

    Citation

    Dawley, Ellen M., et al. "Spinal Cord Regeneration in a Tail Autotomizing Urodele." Journal of Morphology, vol. 273, no. 2, 2012, pp. 211-25.
    Dawley EM, O Samson S, Woodard KT, et al. Spinal cord regeneration in a tail autotomizing urodele. J Morphol. 2012;273(2):211-25.
    Dawley, E. M., O Samson, S., Woodard, K. T., & Matthias, K. A. (2012). Spinal cord regeneration in a tail autotomizing urodele. Journal of Morphology, 273(2), pp. 211-25. doi:10.1002/jmor.11019.
    Dawley EM, et al. Spinal Cord Regeneration in a Tail Autotomizing Urodele. J Morphol. 2012;273(2):211-25. PubMed PMID: 21956379.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Spinal cord regeneration in a tail autotomizing urodele. AU - Dawley,Ellen M, AU - O Samson,Shoji, AU - Woodard,Kenton T, AU - Matthias,Kathryn A, Y1 - 2011/09/28/ PY - 2010/12/26/received PY - 2011/07/29/revised PY - 2011/08/12/accepted PY - 2011/9/30/entrez PY - 2011/10/1/pubmed PY - 2012/4/21/medline SP - 211 EP - 25 JF - Journal of morphology JO - J. Morphol. VL - 273 IS - 2 N2 - Adult urodele amphibians possess extensive regenerative abilities, including lens, jaws, limbs, and tails. In this study, we examined the cellular events and time course of spinal cord regeneration in a species, Plethodon cinereus, that has the ability to autotomize its tail as an antipredator strategy. We propose that this species may have enhanced regenerative abilities as further coadaptations with this antipredator strategy. We examined the expression of nestin, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) after autotomy as markers of neural precursor cells and astroglia; we also traced the appearance of new neurons using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine/neuronal nuclei (BrdU/NeuN) double labeling. As expected, the regenerating ependymal tube was a major source of new neurons; however, the spinal cord cranial to the plane of autotomy showed significant mitotic activity, more extensive than what is reported for other urodeles that cannot autotomize their tails. In addition, this species shows upregulation of nestin, vimentin, and GFAP within days after tail autotomy; further, this expression is upregulated within the spinal cord cranial to the plane of autotomy, not just within the extending ependymal tube, as reported in other urodeles. We suggest that enhanced survival of the spinal cord cranial to autotomy allows this portion to participate in the enhanced recovery and regeneration of the spinal cord. SN - 1097-4687 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21956379/Spinal_cord_regeneration_in_a_tail_autotomizing_urodele_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.11019 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -