Quantitative analysis of multiple exocyclic DNA adducts in human salivary DNA by stable isotope dilution nanoflow liquid chromatography-nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.Anal Chem. 2011 Nov 15; 83(22):8543-51.AC
Exocyclic DNA adducts, including 1,N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine derived from acrolein (AdG) and crotonaldehyde (CdG) and the three lipid peroxidation-related etheno adducts 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (εdAdo), 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (εdCyt), and 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-εdGuo), play an important role in cancer formation and they are associated with oxidative-stress-induced DNA damage. Saliva is an easily accessible and available biological fluid and a potential target of noninvasive biomarkers. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific assay based on isotope dilution nanoflow LC-nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS) is developed for simultaneous detection and quantification of these five adducts in human salivary DNA. The levels of AdG, CdG, εdAdo, εdCyd, and 1,N(2)-εdGuo, measured in 27 human salivary DNA samples from healthy volunteers, were determined as 104 ± 50, 7.6 ± 12, 99 ± 50, 72 ± 49, 391 ± 198 (mean ± SD) in 10(8) normal nucleotides, respectively, starting with 25 μg of DNA isolated from an average of 3 mL of saliva. Statistically significant correlations were found between levels of εdAdo and εdCyd (γ = 0.8007, p < 0.0001), between levels of εdAdo and 1,N(2)-εdGuo (γ = 0.6778, p = 0.0001), between levels of εdCyd and 1,N(2)-εdGuo (γ = 0.5643, p = 0.0022), between levels of AdG and 1,N(2)-εdGuo (γ = 0.5756, p = 0.0017), and between levels of AdG and εdAdo (γ = 0.3969, p = 0.0404). Only 5 μg of DNA sample was analyzed for simultaneous quantification of these adducts. The easy accessibility and availability of saliva and the requirement for the small amount of DNA samples make this nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS assay clinically feasible in assessing the possibility of measuring 1,N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine and etheno adducts levels in human salivary DNA as noninvasive biomarkers for DNA damage resulting from oxidative stress and for evaluating their roles in cancer formation and prevention.