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Electroacupuncture attenuates mechanical and warm allodynia through suppression of spinal glial activation in a rat model of neuropathic pain.
Brain Res Bull. 2011 Nov 25; 86(5-6):403-11.BR

Abstract

Neuropathic pain remains one of the most difficult clinical pain syndromes to treat. It is traditionally viewed as being mediated solely by neurons; however, glial cells have recently been implicated as powerful modulators of pain. It is known that the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) are mediated by descending pain inhibitory systems, which mainly involve spinal opioid, adrenergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic receptors. However, studies investigating the suppressive effects of EA on spinal glial activation are rare. In the present study, we assessed the cumulative analgesic effects of EA on mechanical and warm allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain. We investigated the clinical efficacy of EA as long-term therapy and examined its effects on spinal glia, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9/MMP-2, proinflammatory cytokines and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as follows: the operation group (OP), operation with EA-non acupoint (EA-NA), operation with EA-ST36 acupoint (EA-ST36), and sham operation (shamOP). Following neuropathic or sham surgery, repeated EA was performed every other day after the behavioral test. On day 53 after the behavioral test, rats were perfused for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis to observe quantitative changes in spinal glial markers such as OX-42, astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), MMP-9/MMP-2, and proinflammatory cytokines. Allodynia and OX-42/GFAP/MMP-9/MMP-2/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/interleukin (IL)-1β activity in the EA-ST36 group was significantly reduced, compared to the OP and EA-NA groups, and IgG in EA-ST36 rats significantly increased. Our results suggest that the analgesic effect of EA may be partly mediated via inhibition of inflammation and glial activation and repeated EA stimulation may be useful for treating chronic pain clinically.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of East-West Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21958939

Citation

Gim, Gyeong-Taek, et al. "Electroacupuncture Attenuates Mechanical and Warm Allodynia Through Suppression of Spinal Glial Activation in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain." Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 86, no. 5-6, 2011, pp. 403-11.
Gim GT, Lee JH, Park E, et al. Electroacupuncture attenuates mechanical and warm allodynia through suppression of spinal glial activation in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Brain Res Bull. 2011;86(5-6):403-11.
Gim, G. T., Lee, J. H., Park, E., Sung, Y. H., Kim, C. J., Hwang, W. W., Chu, J. P., & Min, B. I. (2011). Electroacupuncture attenuates mechanical and warm allodynia through suppression of spinal glial activation in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Brain Research Bulletin, 86(5-6), 403-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2011.09.010
Gim GT, et al. Electroacupuncture Attenuates Mechanical and Warm Allodynia Through Suppression of Spinal Glial Activation in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain. Brain Res Bull. 2011 Nov 25;86(5-6):403-11. PubMed PMID: 21958939.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Electroacupuncture attenuates mechanical and warm allodynia through suppression of spinal glial activation in a rat model of neuropathic pain. AU - Gim,Gyeong-Taek, AU - Lee,Ji-Hye, AU - Park,Eunkuk, AU - Sung,Yun-Hee, AU - Kim,Chang-Ju, AU - Hwang,Wei-Wan, AU - Chu,Jong-Phil, AU - Min,Byung-Il, Y1 - 2011/09/21/ PY - 2011/08/10/received PY - 2011/09/16/accepted PY - 2011/10/1/entrez PY - 2011/10/1/pubmed PY - 2012/4/6/medline SP - 403 EP - 11 JF - Brain research bulletin JO - Brain Res Bull VL - 86 IS - 5-6 N2 - Neuropathic pain remains one of the most difficult clinical pain syndromes to treat. It is traditionally viewed as being mediated solely by neurons; however, glial cells have recently been implicated as powerful modulators of pain. It is known that the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) are mediated by descending pain inhibitory systems, which mainly involve spinal opioid, adrenergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic receptors. However, studies investigating the suppressive effects of EA on spinal glial activation are rare. In the present study, we assessed the cumulative analgesic effects of EA on mechanical and warm allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain. We investigated the clinical efficacy of EA as long-term therapy and examined its effects on spinal glia, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9/MMP-2, proinflammatory cytokines and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as follows: the operation group (OP), operation with EA-non acupoint (EA-NA), operation with EA-ST36 acupoint (EA-ST36), and sham operation (shamOP). Following neuropathic or sham surgery, repeated EA was performed every other day after the behavioral test. On day 53 after the behavioral test, rats were perfused for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis to observe quantitative changes in spinal glial markers such as OX-42, astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), MMP-9/MMP-2, and proinflammatory cytokines. Allodynia and OX-42/GFAP/MMP-9/MMP-2/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/interleukin (IL)-1β activity in the EA-ST36 group was significantly reduced, compared to the OP and EA-NA groups, and IgG in EA-ST36 rats significantly increased. Our results suggest that the analgesic effect of EA may be partly mediated via inhibition of inflammation and glial activation and repeated EA stimulation may be useful for treating chronic pain clinically. SN - 1873-2747 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21958939/Electroacupuncture_attenuates_mechanical_and_warm_allodynia_through_suppression_of_spinal_glial_activation_in_a_rat_model_of_neuropathic_pain_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0361-9230(11)00283-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -