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Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cognitive decline: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in stable myocardial infarction patients.
Alzheimers Dement 2012; 8(4):278-87AD

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids derived from fish (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) against cognitive decline. For α-linolenic acid (ALA) obtained from vegetable sources, the effect on cognitive decline is unknown. We examined the effect of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on cognitive decline in coronary heart disease patients.

METHODS

The analysis included 2911 coronary patients (78% men) aged 60 to 80 years who participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases (Alpha Omega Trial). By using a 2 × 2 factorial design, patients were randomly assigned to margarines that provided 400 mg/d of EPA-DHA, 2 g/d of ALA, both EPA-DHA and ALA, or placebo for 40 months. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at baseline and after 40 months. The effect of n-3 fatty acids on change in MMSE score was assessed using analysis of variance. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effects on risk of cognitive decline, defined as a decrease of 3 or more points in MMSE score or incidence of dementia.

RESULTS

Patients in the active treatment groups had an additional intake of 384 mg of EPA-DHA, 1.9 g of ALA, or both. The overall MMSE score in this cohort was 28.3 ± 1.6 points, which decreased by 0.67 ± 2.25 points during follow-up. Changes in MMSE score during intervention did not differ significantly between EPA-DHA and placebo (-0.65 vs -0.69 points, P = .44) or between ALA and placebo (-0.60 vs -0.74 points, P = .12). The risk of cognitive decline was 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.26, P = .80) for EPA-DHA (vs placebo) and 0.90 (0.74-1.10, P = .31) for ALA (vs placebo).

CONCLUSION

This large intervention study showed no effect of dietary doses of n-3 fatty acids on global cognitive decline in coronary heart disease patients.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. marianne.geleijnse@wur.nlNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21967845

Citation

Geleijnse, Johanna M., et al. "Effects of N-3 Fatty Acids On Cognitive Decline: a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial in Stable Myocardial Infarction Patients." Alzheimer's & Dementia : the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, vol. 8, no. 4, 2012, pp. 278-87.
Geleijnse JM, Giltay EJ, Kromhout D. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cognitive decline: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in stable myocardial infarction patients. Alzheimers Dement. 2012;8(4):278-87.
Geleijnse, J. M., Giltay, E. J., & Kromhout, D. (2012). Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cognitive decline: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in stable myocardial infarction patients. Alzheimer's & Dementia : the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, 8(4), pp. 278-87. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.06.002.
Geleijnse JM, Giltay EJ, Kromhout D. Effects of N-3 Fatty Acids On Cognitive Decline: a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial in Stable Myocardial Infarction Patients. Alzheimers Dement. 2012;8(4):278-87. PubMed PMID: 21967845.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cognitive decline: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in stable myocardial infarction patients. AU - Geleijnse,Johanna M, AU - Giltay,Erik J, AU - Kromhout,Daan, Y1 - 2011/10/02/ PY - 2010/11/12/received PY - 2011/06/14/revised PY - 2011/06/22/accepted PY - 2011/10/5/entrez PY - 2011/10/5/pubmed PY - 2012/11/14/medline SP - 278 EP - 87 JF - Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association JO - Alzheimers Dement VL - 8 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids derived from fish (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) against cognitive decline. For α-linolenic acid (ALA) obtained from vegetable sources, the effect on cognitive decline is unknown. We examined the effect of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on cognitive decline in coronary heart disease patients. METHODS: The analysis included 2911 coronary patients (78% men) aged 60 to 80 years who participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases (Alpha Omega Trial). By using a 2 × 2 factorial design, patients were randomly assigned to margarines that provided 400 mg/d of EPA-DHA, 2 g/d of ALA, both EPA-DHA and ALA, or placebo for 40 months. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at baseline and after 40 months. The effect of n-3 fatty acids on change in MMSE score was assessed using analysis of variance. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effects on risk of cognitive decline, defined as a decrease of 3 or more points in MMSE score or incidence of dementia. RESULTS: Patients in the active treatment groups had an additional intake of 384 mg of EPA-DHA, 1.9 g of ALA, or both. The overall MMSE score in this cohort was 28.3 ± 1.6 points, which decreased by 0.67 ± 2.25 points during follow-up. Changes in MMSE score during intervention did not differ significantly between EPA-DHA and placebo (-0.65 vs -0.69 points, P = .44) or between ALA and placebo (-0.60 vs -0.74 points, P = .12). The risk of cognitive decline was 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.26, P = .80) for EPA-DHA (vs placebo) and 0.90 (0.74-1.10, P = .31) for ALA (vs placebo). CONCLUSION: This large intervention study showed no effect of dietary doses of n-3 fatty acids on global cognitive decline in coronary heart disease patients. SN - 1552-5279 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21967845/Effects_of_n_3_fatty_acids_on_cognitive_decline:_a_randomized_double_blind_placebo_controlled_trial_in_stable_myocardial_infarction_patients_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1552-5260(11)02652-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -