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Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cognitive decline: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in stable myocardial infarction patients.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids derived from fish (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) against cognitive decline. For α-linolenic acid (ALA) obtained from vegetable sources, the effect on cognitive decline is unknown. We examined the effect of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on cognitive decline in coronary heart disease patients.

METHODS

The analysis included 2911 coronary patients (78% men) aged 60 to 80 years who participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases (Alpha Omega Trial). By using a 2 × 2 factorial design, patients were randomly assigned to margarines that provided 400 mg/d of EPA-DHA, 2 g/d of ALA, both EPA-DHA and ALA, or placebo for 40 months. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at baseline and after 40 months. The effect of n-3 fatty acids on change in MMSE score was assessed using analysis of variance. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effects on risk of cognitive decline, defined as a decrease of 3 or more points in MMSE score or incidence of dementia.

RESULTS

Patients in the active treatment groups had an additional intake of 384 mg of EPA-DHA, 1.9 g of ALA, or both. The overall MMSE score in this cohort was 28.3 ± 1.6 points, which decreased by 0.67 ± 2.25 points during follow-up. Changes in MMSE score during intervention did not differ significantly between EPA-DHA and placebo (-0.65 vs -0.69 points, P = .44) or between ALA and placebo (-0.60 vs -0.74 points, P = .12). The risk of cognitive decline was 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.26, P = .80) for EPA-DHA (vs placebo) and 0.90 (0.74-1.10, P = .31) for ALA (vs placebo).

CONCLUSION

This large intervention study showed no effect of dietary doses of n-3 fatty acids on global cognitive decline in coronary heart disease patients.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. marianne.geleijnse@wur.nl

    ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Cognition Disorders
    Double-Blind Method
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Female
    Humans
    Logistic Models
    Longitudinal Studies
    Male
    Mental Status Schedule
    Middle Aged
    Myocardial Infarction
    Neuropsychological Tests
    Treatment Outcome

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21967845

    Citation

    Geleijnse, Johanna M., et al. "Effects of N-3 Fatty Acids On Cognitive Decline: a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial in Stable Myocardial Infarction Patients." Alzheimer's & Dementia : the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, vol. 8, no. 4, 2012, pp. 278-87.
    Geleijnse JM, Giltay EJ, Kromhout D. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cognitive decline: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in stable myocardial infarction patients. Alzheimers Dement. 2012;8(4):278-87.
    Geleijnse, J. M., Giltay, E. J., & Kromhout, D. (2012). Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cognitive decline: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in stable myocardial infarction patients. Alzheimer's & Dementia : the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, 8(4), pp. 278-87. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.06.002.
    Geleijnse JM, Giltay EJ, Kromhout D. Effects of N-3 Fatty Acids On Cognitive Decline: a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial in Stable Myocardial Infarction Patients. Alzheimers Dement. 2012;8(4):278-87. PubMed PMID: 21967845.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cognitive decline: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in stable myocardial infarction patients. AU - Geleijnse,Johanna M, AU - Giltay,Erik J, AU - Kromhout,Daan, Y1 - 2011/10/02/ PY - 2010/11/12/received PY - 2011/06/14/revised PY - 2011/06/22/accepted PY - 2011/10/5/entrez PY - 2011/10/5/pubmed PY - 2012/11/14/medline SP - 278 EP - 87 JF - Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association JO - Alzheimers Dement VL - 8 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids derived from fish (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) against cognitive decline. For α-linolenic acid (ALA) obtained from vegetable sources, the effect on cognitive decline is unknown. We examined the effect of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on cognitive decline in coronary heart disease patients. METHODS: The analysis included 2911 coronary patients (78% men) aged 60 to 80 years who participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases (Alpha Omega Trial). By using a 2 × 2 factorial design, patients were randomly assigned to margarines that provided 400 mg/d of EPA-DHA, 2 g/d of ALA, both EPA-DHA and ALA, or placebo for 40 months. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at baseline and after 40 months. The effect of n-3 fatty acids on change in MMSE score was assessed using analysis of variance. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effects on risk of cognitive decline, defined as a decrease of 3 or more points in MMSE score or incidence of dementia. RESULTS: Patients in the active treatment groups had an additional intake of 384 mg of EPA-DHA, 1.9 g of ALA, or both. The overall MMSE score in this cohort was 28.3 ± 1.6 points, which decreased by 0.67 ± 2.25 points during follow-up. Changes in MMSE score during intervention did not differ significantly between EPA-DHA and placebo (-0.65 vs -0.69 points, P = .44) or between ALA and placebo (-0.60 vs -0.74 points, P = .12). The risk of cognitive decline was 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.26, P = .80) for EPA-DHA (vs placebo) and 0.90 (0.74-1.10, P = .31) for ALA (vs placebo). CONCLUSION: This large intervention study showed no effect of dietary doses of n-3 fatty acids on global cognitive decline in coronary heart disease patients. SN - 1552-5279 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21967845/Effects_of_n_3_fatty_acids_on_cognitive_decline:_a_randomized_double_blind_placebo_controlled_trial_in_stable_myocardial_infarction_patients_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1552-5260(11)02652-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -